We propose a speech analysis method based on the source-filter model using multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD). The proposed method takes multiple adjacent frames of a speech signal into account by combining their log spectra into multivariate signals. The multivariate signals are then decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The IMFs are divided into two groups using the peak of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of an IMF. The first group characterized by a spectral fine structure is used to estimate the fundamental frequency F0 by using the ACF, whereas the second group characterized by the frequency response of the vocal-tract filter is used to estimate formant frequencies by using a peak picking technique. There are two advantages of using MEMD: (i) the variation in the number of IMFs is eliminated in contrast with single-frame based empirical mode decomposition and (ii) the common information of the adjacent frames aligns in the same order of IMFs because of the common mode alignment property of MEMD. These advantages make the analysis more accurate than with other methods. As opposed to the conventional linear prediction (LP) and cepstrum methods, which rely on the LP order and cut-off frequency, respectively, the proposed method automatically separates the glottal-source and vocal-tract filter. The results showed that the proposed method exhibits the highest accuracy of F0 estimation and correctly estimates the formant frequencies of the vocal-tract filter.
The cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (CBMeMBer) filter has emerged as a promising tool for tracking a time-varying number of targets. However, the standard CBMeMBer filter may perform poorly when measurements are coupled with sensor biases. This paper extends the CBMeMBer filter for simultaneous target tracking and sensor biases estimation by introducing the sensor translational biases into the multi-Bernoulli distribution. In the extended CBMeMBer filter, the biases are modeled as the first order Gauss-Markov process and assumed to be uncorrelated with target states. Furthermore, the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method is adopted to handle the non-linearity and the non-Gaussian conditions. Simulations are carried out to examine the performance of the proposed filter.
In this paper, a novel method for an effective allocation of non-zero digits in design of CSD (Canonic Signed-Digit) coefficient FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters is proposed. The design problem can be formulated as a mixed integer programming problem, which is well-known as a NP-hard problem. Recently, a heuristic approach using the PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) for solving the problem has been proposed, in which the maximum number of non-zero digits was limited in each coefficient. On the other hand, the maximum number of non-zero digits is limited in total in the proposed method and 0-1PSO is applied. It enables an effective allocation of non-zero digits, and provides a good design. Several examples are shown to present the efficiency of the proposed method.
This paper proposes statistical analysis of phase-only correlation functions with phase-spectrum differences following wrapped distributions. We first assume phase-spectrum differences between two signals to be random variables following a linear distribution. Next, based on directional statistics, we convert the linear distribution into a wrapped distribution by wrapping the linear distribution around the circumference of the unit circle. Finally, we derive general expressions of the expectation and variance of the POC functions with phase-spectrum differences following wrapped distributions. We obtain exactly the same expressions between a linear distribution and its corresponding wrapped distribution.
A novel virtual sensors-based positioning method has been presented in this paper, which can make use of both direct paths and indirect paths. By integrating the virtual sensor idea and Bayesian state and observation framework, this method models the indirect paths corresponding to persistent virtual sensors as virtual direct paths and further reformulates the wireless positioning problem as the maximum likelihood estimation of both the mobile terminal's positions and the persistent virtual sensors' positions. Then the method adopts the EM (Expectation Maximization) and the particle filtering schemes to estimate the virtual sensors' positions and finally exploits not only the direct paths' measurements but also the indirect paths' measurements to realize the mobile terminal's positions estimation, thus achieving better positioning performance. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A digital map is a simple dynamical system that is related to various digital dynamical systems including cellular automata, dynamic binary neural networks, and digital spiking neurons. Depending on parameters and initial condition, the map can exhibit various periodic orbits and transient phenomena to them. In order to analyze the dynamics, we present two simple feature quantities. The first and second quantities characterize the plentifulness of the periodic phenomena and the deviation of the transient phenomena, respectively. Using the two feature quantities, we construct the steady-versus-transient plot that is useful in the visualization and consideration of various digital dynamical systems. As a first step, we demonstrate analysis results for an example of the digital maps based on analog bifurcating neuron models.
The 3-D channel routing is a fundamental problem on the physical design of 3-D integrated circuits. The 3-D channel is a 3-D grid G and the terminals are vertices of G located in the top and bottom layers. A net is a set of terminals to be connected. The objective of the 3-D channel routing problem is to connect the terminals in each net with a Steiner tree (wire) in G using as few layers as possible and as short wires as possible in such a way that wires for distinct nets are disjoint. This paper shows that the problem is intractable. We also show that a sparse set of ν 2-terminal nets can be routed in a 3-D channel with O(√ν) layers using wires of length O(√ν).
Two new authenticated key agreement protocols in the certificateless setting are presented in this paper. Both are proved secure in the extended Canetti-Krawczyk model, under the BDH assumption. The first one is more efficient than the Lippold et al.'s (LBG) protocol, and is proved secure in the same security model. The second protocol is proved secure under the Swanson et al.'s security model, a weaker model. As far as we know, our second proposed protocol is the first one proved secure in the Swanson et al.'s security model. If no pre-computations are done, the first protocol is about 26% faster than LBG, and the second protocol is about 49% faster than LBG, and about 31% faster than the first one. If pre-computations of some operations are done, our two protocols remain faster.
Power analysis exploits the leaked information gained from cryptographic devices including, but not limited to, power consumption generated during cryptographic operations. If a number of power traces are given to an attacker, it is possible to reveal a cryptographic key efficiently, sometimes within a few minutes, using various statistical methods. In this sense, software countermeasures including higher-order masking or software dual-rail with precharge logic have been proposed to produce randomized or constant power consumption during the key-dependent operations. However, they have critical disadvantages in terms of computational time and security. In this paper, we propose a new solution called “one-bit to four-bit dual conversion” for enhanced security against power analysis. For an exemplary embodiment of the proposed scheme, we apply it to an AES implementation and demonstrate its security and performance. The overall costs are approximately 148KB memory space for the lookup tables and about a 3-fold increase in execution time than the straightforward implementation of AES.
Ramp metering is the most effective and direct method to control a vehicle entering a freeway. This study proposes a novel density-based ramp metering method. Existing methods typically use flow data that has low reliability, and they suffer from various problems. Furthermore, when ramp metering is performed based on freeway congestion, additional congestion and over-capacity can occur in the ramp. To solve these problems faced with existing methods, the proposed method uses the density and acceleration data of vehicles on the freeway and considers the ramp status. The experimental environment was simulated using PTV Corporation's VISSIM simulator. The Traffic Information and Condition Analysis System was developed to control the VISSIM simulator. The experiment was conducted between 2:00 PM and 7:00 PM on October 5, 2014, during severe traffic congestion. The simulation results showed that total travel time was reduced by 10% compared to existing metering system during the peak time. Thus, we solved the problem of ramp congestion and over-capacity.
This paper presents a non-crossover and multi-mutation based genetic algorithm (NMGA) for the Flexible Job-shop Scheduling problem (FJSP) with the criterion to minimize the maximum completion time (makespan). Aiming at the characteristics of FJSP, three mutation operators based on operation sequence coding and machine assignment coding are proposed: flip, slide, and swap. Meanwhile, the NMGA framework, coding scheme, as well as the decoding algorithm are also specially designed for the FJSP. In the framework, recombination operator crossover is not included and a special selection strategy is employed. Computational results based on a set of representative benchmark problems were provided. The evidence indicates that the proposed algorithm is superior to several recently published genetic algorithms in terms of solution quality and convergence ability.
To discuss whether rotational invariance is the main role in spectrogram features, new spectral features based on local normalized center moments, denoted by LNCMSF, are proposed. The proposed LNCMSF firstly adopts 2nd order normalized center moments to describe local energy distribution of the logarithmic energy spectrum, then normalized center moment spectrograms NC1 and NC2 are gained. Secondly, DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) is used to eliminate the correlation of NC1 and NC2, then high order cepstral coefficients TNC1 and TNC2 are obtained. Finally, LNCMSF is generated by combining NC1, NC2, TNC1 and TNC2. The rotational invariance test experiment shows that the rotational invariance is not a necessary property in partial spectrogram features. The recognition experiment shows that the maximum UA (Unweighted Average of Class-Wise Recall Rate) of LNCMSF are improved by at least 10.7% and 1.2% respectively, compared to that of MFCC (Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient) and HuWSF (Weighted Spectral Features Based on Local Hu Moments).
Exploring a parsimonious model that is just enough to represent the temporal dependency of time serial signals such as audio or speech is a practical requirement for many signal processing applications. A well suited method for intuitively and efficiently representing magnitude spectra is to use convolutive non-negative matrix factorization (CNMF) to discover the temporal relationship among nearby frames. However, the model order selection problem in CNMF, i.e., the choice of the number of convolutive bases, has seldom been investigated ever. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian framework that can automatically learn the optimal model order through maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. The proposed method yields a parsimonious and low-rank approximation by removing the redundant bases iteratively. We conducted intuitive experiments to show that the proposed algorithm is very effective in automatically determining the correct model order.
In a wireless communication system, the base station failure can result in a communication disruption in the cell. This letter aims to propose an alternative way to cope with the base station failure in a wireless communication system, based on MIMO-OFDM. Cooperative communication can be a solution to the problem. Unlike general cooperative communication, this letter attempts to cover cooperation among adjacent base stations. This letter proposes a specific configuration of transmission signals which is applied to the CDD scheme. The proposed cooperative system can obtain multiplexing gain and diversity gain at the same time. A more reliable performance can be obtained by the proposed cooperative system which uses cooperation of adjacent base stations.
In this letter, a novel channel impulse response (CIR)-based fingerprinting positioning method using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) has been proposed. During the offline phase of the proposed method, a survey is performed to collect all CIRs from access points, and a fingerprint database is constructed, which has vectors including CIR and physical location. During the online phase, KPCA is first employed to solve the nonlinearity and complexity in the CIR-position dependencies and extract the principal nonlinear features in CIRs, and support vector regression is then used to adaptively learn the regress function between the KPCA components and physical locations. In addition, the iterative narrowing-scope step is further used to refine the estimation. The performance comparison shows that the proposed method outperforms the traditional received signal strength based positioning methods.
This paper is a sequel to  in which the system is generalized by including unknown time-varying delays in both states and input. Regarding the controller, the design of adaptive gain is simplified by including only x1 and u whereas full states are used in . Moreover, it is shown that the proposed controller is also applicable to a class of upper triangular nonlinear systems. An example is given for illustration.
The online interval coloring problem has been extensively studied for many years. Kierstead and Trotter (Congressus Numerantium 33, 1981) proved that their algorithm is an optimal online algorithm for this problem. The number of colors used by the algorithm is at most 3ω(G)-2, where ω(G) is the size of the maximum clique in a given graph G. Also, they presented an instance for which the number of colors used by any online algorithm is at least 3ω(G)-2. This instance includes intervals with various lengths, which cannot be applied to the case when the lengths of the given intervals are restricted to one, i.e., the online unit interval coloring problem. In this case, the current best upper and lower bounds on the number of colors used by an online algorithm are 2ω(G)-1 and 3ω(G)/2 respectively by Epstein and Levy (ICALP2005). In this letter, we conduct a complete performance analysis of the Kierstead-Trotter algorithm for online unit interval coloring, and prove it is NOT optimal. Specifically, we provide an upper bound of 3ω(G)-3 on the number of colors used by their algorithm. Moreover, the bound is the best possible.
Kiasu-BC is a recently proposed tweakable variant of the AES-128 block cipher. The designers of Kiasu-BC claim that no more than 7-round Meet-in-the-Middle (MitM) attack can be launched against it. In this letter, we present a MitM attack, utilizing the differential enumeration technique, on the 8-round reduced cipher. The attack has time complexity of 2116 encryptions, memory complexity of 286 128-bit blocks, and data complexity of 2116 plaintext-tweak combinations.
In a previous work , Wang et al. proposed a privacy-preserving outsourcing scheme for biometric identification in cloud computing, namely CloudBI. The author claimed that it can resist against various known attacks. However, there exist serious security flaws in their scheme, and it can be completely broken through a small number of constructed identification requests. In this letter, we modify the encryption scheme and propose an improved version of the privacy-preserving biometric identification design which can resist such attack and can provide a much higher level of security.
In this letter, we investigate the problem of feedforward timing estimation for burst-mode satellite communications. By analyzing the correlation property of frame header (FH) acquisition in the presence of sampling offset, a novel data-aided feedforward timing estimator that utilizes the correlation peaks for interpolating the fractional timing offset is proposed. Numerical results show that even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and small rolloff factor conditions, the proposed estimator can approach the modified Cramer-Rao bound (MCRB) closely. Furthermore, this estimator only requires two samples per symbol and can be implemented with low complexity with respect to conventional data-aided estimators.
Recently, many wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have employed mobile sensor nodes to collect a variety of data from mobile elements such as humans, animals and cars. In this letter, we propose an efficient mobile data aggregation scheme to improve the overall performance in gathering the data of the mobile nodes. We first propose a spatial mobile data aggregation scheme to aggregate the data of the mobile node spatially, which is then extended to a two-tier mobile data aggregation by supplementing a temporal mobile data aggregation scheme to aggregate the data of multiple mobile nodes temporally. Simulation results show that our scheme significantly reduces the energy consumption and gathering delay for data collection from mobile nodes in WSNs.
The dark channel prior (DCP)-based image dehazing method has been widely used for enhancing visibility of outdoor images. However, since the DCP-based method assumes that the minimum values within local patches of natural outdoor haze-free images are zero, underestimation of the transmission is inevitable when the assumption does not hold. In this letter, a novel iterative image dehazing algorithm is proposed to compensate for the underestimated transmission. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the dehazing performance by increasing the transmission estimation accuracy.