This paper proposes a new class of Hilbert pairs of almost symmetric orthogonal wavelet bases. For two wavelet bases to form a Hilbert pair, the corresponding scaling lowpass filters are required to satisfy the half-sample delay condition. In this paper, we design simultaneously two scaling lowpass filters with the arbitrarily specified flat group delay responses at ω=0, which satisfy the half-sample delay condition. In addition to specifying the number of vanishing moments, we apply the Remez exchange algorithm to minimize the difference of frequency responses between two scaling lowpass filters, in order to improve the analyticity of complex wavelets. The equiripple behavior of the error function can be obtained through a few iterations. Therefore, the resulting complex wavelets are orthogonal and almost symmetric, and have the improved analyticity. Finally, some examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.
As three dimensional (3D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is widely used for high resolution volumetric data compression, and to further improve the performance of lossless coding, the adaptive directional lifting (ADL) structure based on non-separable 3D DWT with a (5,3) filter is proposed in this paper. The proposed 3D DWT has less lifting steps and better prediction performance compared to the existing separable 3D DWT with fixed filter coefficients. It also has compatibility with the conventional DWT defined by the JPEG2000 international standard. The proposed method shows comparable and better results with the non-separable 3D DWT and separable 3D DWT and it is effective for lossless coding of high resolution volumetric data.
Maneuvering target tracking under mixed line-of-sight/non-line-of-sight (LOS/NLOS) conditions has received considerable interest in the last decades. In this paper, a hierarchical interacting multiple model (HIMM) method is proposed for estimating target position under mixed LOS/NLOS conditions. The proposed HIMM is composed of two layers with Markov switching model. The purpose of the upper layer, which is composed of two interacting multiple model (IMM) filters in parallel, is to handle the switching between the LOS and the NLOS environments. To estimate the target kinetic variables (position, speed and acceleration), the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) with the current statistical (CS) model is used in the lower-layer. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, which obtains better tracking accuracy than the traditional IMM.
Mixed-signal integrated circuit design and simulation highly rely on behavioral models of circuit blocks. Such models are used for the validation of design specification, optimization of system topology, and behavioral synthesis using a description language, etc. However, automatic behavioral model generation is still in its early stages; in most scenarios designers are responsible for creating behavioral models manually, which is time-consuming and error prone. In this paper an automatic behavioral model generation method for switched-capacitor (SC) integrator is proposed. This technique is based on symbolic circuit modeling with approximation, by which parametric behavioral integrator model can be generated. Such parametric models can be used in circuit design subject to severe process variational. It is demonstrated that the automatically generated integrator models can accurately capture process variation effects on arbitrarily selected circuit elements; furthermore, they can be applied to behavioral simulation of SC Sigma-Delta modulators (SDMs) with acceptable accuracy and speedup. The generated models are compared to a recently proposed manually generated behavioral integrator model in several simulation settings.
A Field Programmable Sequencer and Memory (FPSM), which is a programmable unit exclusively optimized for peripherals on a micro controller unit, is proposed. The FPSM functions as not only the peripherals but also the standard built-in memory. The FPSM provides easier programmability with a smaller area overhead, especially when compared with the FPGA. The FPSM is implemented on the FPGA and the programmability and performance for basic peripherals such as the 8 bit counter and 8 bit accuracy Pulse Width Modulation are emulated on the FPGA. Furthermore, the FPSM core with a 4K bit SRAM is fabricated in 0.18µm 5 metal CMOS process technology. The FPSM is an half the area of FPGA, its power consumption is less than one-fifth.
The likelihood-ratio based score level fusion (LR-based fusion) scheme has attracted much attention, since it maximizes accuracy if a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) is accurately estimated. In reality, it can happen that a user cannot input some query samples due to temporary physical conditions such as injuries and illness. It can also happen that some modalities tend to cause false rejection (i.e. the user is a “goat” for these modalities). The LR-based fusion scheme can handle these situations by setting LLRs corresponding to missing query samples to 0. In this paper, we refer to such a mode as a “modality selection mode”, and address an issue of accuracy in this mode. Specifically, we provide the following contributions: (1) We firstly propose a “modality selection attack”, in which an impostor inputs only query samples whose LLRs are more than 0 (i.e. takes an optimal strategy) to impersonate others. We also show that the impostor can perform this attack against the SPRT (Sequential Probability Ratio Test)-based fusion scheme, which is an extension of the LR-based fusion scheme to a sequential fusion scenario. (2) We secondly consider the case when both genuine users and impostors take this optimal strategy, and show that the overall accuracy in this case is “worse” than the case when they input all query samples. More specifically, we prove that the KL (Kullback-Leibler) divergence between a genuine distribution of integrated scores and an impostor's one, which can be compared with password entropy, is smaller in the former case. We also show to what extent the KL divergence losses for each modality. (3) We finally evaluate to what extent the overall accuracy becomes worse using the NIST BSSR1 Set 2 and Set 3 datasets, and discuss directions of multibiometric applications based on the experimental results.
Human body segmentation has many applications in a wide variety of image processing tasks, from intelligent vehicles to entertainment. A substantial amount of research has been done in the field of segmentation and it is still one of the active research areas, resulting in introduction of many innovative methods in literature. Still, until today, a method that can overcome the human segmentation problems and adapt itself to different kinds of situations, has not been introduced. Many of methods today try to use the graph-cut framework to solve the segmentation problem. Although powerful, these methods rely on a distance penalty term (intensity difference or RGB color distance). This term does not always lead to a good separation between two regions. For example, if two regions are close in color, even if they belong to two different objects, they will be grouped together, which is not acceptable. Also, if one object has multiple parts with different colors, e.g. humans wear various clothes with different colors and patterns, each part will be segmented separately. Although this can be overcome by multiple inputs from user, the inherent problem would not be solved. In this paper, we have considered solving the problem by making use of a human probability map, super-pixels and Grab-cut framework. Using this map relives us from the need for matching the model to the actual body, thus helps to improve the segmentation accuracy. As a result, not only the accuracy has improved, but also it also became comparable to the state-of-the-art interactive methods.
This research develops a method for trajectory planning of robotic systems with differential constraints based on hierarchical partitioning of a continuous state space. Unlike conventional roadmaps which is constructed in the configuration space, the proposed state roadmap also includes additional state information, such as velocity and orientation. A bounded domain of the additional state is partitioned into sub-intervals with multiple resolution levels. Each node of a state roadmap consists of a fixed position and an interval of additional state values. A valid transition is defined between a pair of nodes if any combination of additional states, within their respective intervals, produces a trajectory that satisfies a set of safety constraints. In this manner, a trajectory connecting arbitrary start and goal states subject to safety constraints can be obtained by applying a graph search technique on the state roadmap. The hierarchical nature of the state roadmap reduces the computational cost of roadmap construction, the required storage size of computed roadmaps, as well as the computational cost of path planning. The state roadmap method is evaluated in the trajectory planning examples of an omni-directional mobile robot and a car-like robot with collision avoidance and various types of constraints.
In this paper, a self optimization beamforming null control (SOBNC) scheme is proposed. There is a need of maintaining signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) threshold to control modulation and coding schemes (MCS) in recent technologies like Wi-Fi, Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A). Selection of MCS depends on the SINR threshold that allows maintaining key performance index (KPI) like block error rate (BLER), bit error rate (BER) and throughput at certain level. The SOBNC is used to control the antenna pattern for SINR estimation and improve the SINR performance of the wireless communication systems. The nulling comes with a price; if wider nulls are introduced, i.e. more number of nulls are used, the 3dB beam-width and peak side lobe level (SLL) in antenna pattern changes critically. This paper proposes a method which automatically controls the number of nulls in the antenna pattern as per the changing environment based on adaptive-network based fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) to maintain output SINR level higher or equal to the required threshold. Finally, simulation results show a performance superiority of the proposed SOBNC compared with minimum mean square error (MMSE) based adaptive nulling control algorithm and conventional fixed null scheme.
The information maximization (Infomax) based on information entropy theory is a class of methods that can be used to blindly separate the sources. Torkkola applied the Infomax criterion to blindly separate the mixtures where the sources have been delayed with respect to each other. Compared to the frequency domain methods, this time domain method has simple adaptation rules and can be easily implemented. However, Torkkola's method works only in the real valued field. In this letter, the Infomax for blind separation of the delayed sources is extended to the complex case for processing of complex valued signals. Firstly, based on the gradient ascent the adaptation rules for the parameters of the unmixing network are derived and the steps of algorithm are given. Then, a measurement matrix is constructed to evaluate the separation performance. The results of computer experiment support the extended algorithm.
As dual-polarized multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has little inter-antenna interference, it provides high data rate and reliability to a user equipment (UE) with the low system complexity. In the joint transmission (JT) technique of the coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission system, multiple transmission points (TPs) transmit the same data to the UE so that the UE can get the diversity gain and the high reliability, especially at the cell-edge. However, the system performance of the dual-polarized MIMO in the JT technique of CoMP system is very sensitive on the dual-polarized channel state when the channel is asymmetric. In this letter, an improved dual-polarized MIMO scheme for JT of the downlink CoMP transmission system is proposed. This scheme adaptively applies the transmission power to each dual-polarized MIMO antenna and the modulation order of the transmission data according to the channel state information (CSI). System-level simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides better bit-error-rate (BER) performance in the asymmetric dual-polarized channel state than the conventional scheme.
In quasi-synchronous frequency-hopping multiple access (QS-FHMA) systems, relative delays are allowed to vary in a domain around the origin. Under such condition, the low hit zone (LHZ) frequency-hopping sequence (FHS) set is more propitious than the conventional FHS set to be applied by the systems. In this paper, a construction based on the interleaving techniques of FHS set with LHZ is proposed. Besides the requirement for this constructed LHZ FHS set to get the optimality or the near optimality with respect to the Peng-Fan-Lee bound is also given. It turns out that the constructed LHZ FHS set has new parameters not covered in the literature, thus it does have great significance in practice.
Novel constructions of inter-group complementary (IGC) sequences are proposed based on Z-periodic complementary (ZPC) sequences and uncorrelated sequence set by taking advantages of interleaved operation. The presented methods can get IGC sequences from interleaving ZPC sequence set. The proposed methods not only can get polyphase IGC sequence set, but also can obtain binary and ternary IGC sequence set. In particular, with the aid of uncorrelated sequence, the number of available groups of IGC sequences from interleaving ZPC sequence set can be chosen with flexibility compared to the existed IGC sequences. The IGC sequences based code division multiple access (CDMA) systems may perform better on bit error rates than conventional sequences based interference-limited CDMA systems. Moreover, the novel IGC sequences may work well in both synchronous and asynchronous operational modes.
Codebooks with good parameters are preferred in many practical applications, such as direct spread CDMA communications and compressed sensing. In this letter, an upper bound on the set size of a codebook is introduced by modifying the Levenstein bound on the maximum amplitudes of such a codebook. Based on an estimate of a class of character sums over a finite field by Katz, a family of codebooks nearly meeting the modified bound is proposed.
Let R=Z4 be the integer ring mod 4 and C be a linear code over R. The code C is called a triple cyclic code of length (r, s, t) over R if the set of its coordinates can be partitioned into three parts so that any cyclic shift of the coordinates of the three parts leaves the code invariant. These codes can be viewed as R[x]-submodules of R[x]/<xr-1>×R[x]/<xs-1>×R[x]/<xt-1>. In this paper, we determine the generator polynomials and the minimum generating sets of this kind of codes.
The recently proposed distributed adaptive direct position determination (D-ADPD) algorithm provides an efficient way to locating a radio emitter using a sensor network. However, this algorithm may be suboptimal in the situation of colored emitted signals. We propose an enhanced distributed adaptive direct position determination (EDA-DPD) algorithm. Simulations validate that the proposed EDA-DPD outperforms the D-ADPD in colored emitted signals scenarios and has the similar performance with the D-ADPD in white emitted signal scenarios.