Compared to oral medication, the base plays a large role in the external preparation for skin, and dermatologists select the dosage form based on understanding of the effect of the base as well as according to skin symptoms and conditions, application site, age, season, etc. Further, in treatment with external preparations, it is important for patients to understand the application method and continue to apply an adequate amount to achieve the treatment goal. However, there is little evidence regarding the relationship between base properties or usability and the application amount. In this study, we investigated the usability and application amount of three bases with different properties (ointment base, cream base, and lotion base) in 62 adult subjects and exploratively examined the effect of the different base properties on the application amount. The results of this clinical study showed that the usability and preference for the base used for external preparations varies, and poor usability and low preference may lead to a reduction in the application amount. Even with good usability and high preference, there were many cases in which an adequate amount was not applied due to lack of specific instructions on external use. When selecting or changing the base in an external therapy, it is important for not only dermatologists but also pharmacists providing instructions on external use to be aware of the importance of the base and actively instruct patients to apply an adequate amount of the preparation.
The pramipexole extended-release (long acting) tablet, a D2 receptor agonist commonly used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, has increasingly demonstrated usability for patients with long acting performance and patient adherence improvements. As a generic drug it is sold by six companies while a brand name drug is also marketed. As these formulations are hygroscopic it is described as such in package inserts so that tablets will only be removed from the PTP (Press-Through Package) immediately before ingestion. It is often dispensed in ODP (One-Dose Packaging) as determined by a patient's physical functions and symptom characteristics. With ODP, quality control and ease of removal from the PTP are important factors. In this study we examined the stability of tablets in the ODP (25℃ RH75%) while also comparing the ease of handling of the seven products currently marketed in Japan. In the tablets’ ODP, changes such as swelling and decreases in tablets hardness were observed in six formulations. Differences were found among the products in comparison of packaging material, required tablet extrusion strength, and ease of removal. Given the differences in PTP materials and hygroscopicity it is suggested that pharmacists must not only consider the drug formulations of products but also contribute to improvements in medication adherence for patients with poor hand-finger function.
Corticosteroid insensitive airway inflammation is one of major barrier to effective managements of chronic airway diseases, such as obstructive pulmonary airway disease (COPD) and severe asthma. The role of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src is important in airway inflammation in mice models of atopic asthma and COPD. Thus, in this study, we determined the effects of Src inhibitor, dasatinib, on airway inflammation induced by repeated intranasal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male mice (A/J strain, 5 weeks old) were intranasally exposed to LPS twice daily for 3 days, and dasatinib was intranasally treated 2 h prior to each LPS exposure. A day after the last stimulation, lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. Dasatinib attenuated the accumulation of inflammatory cells in lungs, and the increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells and the accumulation of cytokines/chemokines in BALF in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, this study suggested that targeting the Src can provide a new therapeutic approach for corticosteroid insensitive pulmonary diseases.