Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable type of B-cell lymphoma. It is typically composed of small-to-medium-sized cleaved lymphoid cells with cyclin D1 protein expression due to the chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32). Even with the development of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody drug, the long-term outcome of patients with MCL has not improved. Recently, new agents have been used in clinical settings, and the outcome of patients with MCL is expected to improve. The treatment of MCL may be at a turning point from intensive chemotherapy to chemotherapy-free treatment. In this study, a recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of MCL is reviewed.
Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with intellectual disabilities may be associated with many factors. This study focused on patients with ASD with intellectual disabilities, defined by a threshold intelligence quotient (IQ) or development quotient (DQ) of 70. We also discuss comorbidities and other factors related to ASD.
Methods We extracted case records of patients born between April 1995 and March 2001 who lived in Yonago City, as of January 2011, and had visited the two specialist institutions for consultation regarding developmental issues. The list was further narrowed down to patients identified, as having ASD by pediatric neurologists based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (DSM-5). We selected patients with < IQ/DQ 70 using the most recent intelligence/development test to determine comorbidities and other factors related to ASD.
Results The data of 81 patients (59 males and 22 females) were extracted, corresponding to an incidence of 76.2 patients out of every 10,000 births. The male-to-female ratio was 2.7:1. Comorbidities and related factors of ASD were observed in 25 cases (30.9%). Eleven cases had perinatal abnormalities. Other abnormalities were observed in 17 cases, including epilepsies in 7, chromosomal abnormalities in 4, familial mental retardation in 1, and acquired brain injury in 1.
Conclusion It is important to treat and support individuals with ASD and intellectual disabilities taking into account the characteristics and prognosis of the comorbidities and related factors.
Background Fucoidan is derived from seaweed widely used in Japanese cuisine, but little is known about its influence on glucose metabolism. To obtain information about the physiological effects of fucoidan on glucose metabolism, the digestive system, and the gustatory system controlling taste sensation in patients with type 2 diabetes, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Methods Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes on diet therapy were recruited from an outpatient clinic (22 men and 8 women aged 59.10 ± 13.24 years, body mass index: 25.18 ± 3.88, hemoglobin A1c: 7.04 ± 1.24%). They were divided into 2 groups and underwent 2 interventions with a 4-week interval. One group received fucoidan for 12 weeks (a daily 60 mL test beverage containing 1,620 mg of fucoidan) and then placebo (60 mL) for the subsequent 12-week period, while the order was reversed in the other group. Evaluation was performed just before and after each intervention. Taste sensitivity was measured for 5 basic tastes by the filter paper disk method and food intake was evaluated with a validated diet questionnaire.
Results No adverse events occurred during the study period. Despite no change of the diet, stool frequency increased during fucoidan intake (from 7.78 ± 4.64/week in Week 1 to 9.15 ± 5.03/week in Week 5, P < 0.001), and it increased more in lean subjects. In 11 subjects whose stool frequency exceeded the mean value, the thresholds for sweet, salty, bitter and umami tastes were significantly reduced (enhancement of sensitivity) after fucoidan intake. In 14 subjects with normal HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, < 2.5), hemoglobin A1c decreased after fucoidan intake (from 6.73 ± 1.00 to 6.59 ± 1.00%, P < 0.05), as did the fasting plasma level of GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1, from 6.42 ± 3.52 to 4.93 ± 1.88 pmol/L, P < 0.05).
Conclusion Sustained fucoidan intake led to alterations of gastrointestinal function, including increased stool frequency and enhanced taste sensitivity, which could contribute to better control of diabetes.
Background Left subclavian artery (LSA) embolization is occasionally required to prevent type II endoleak in the thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) procedure. This is a retrospective study comparing compressed Amplatzer Vascular Plug II embolization (CAE) and conventional coil embolization (CCE) in preventing retrograde flow into the aneurysmal sac through the LSA after TEVAR.
Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent CAE or CCE of the LSA during TEVAR from June 2013 to March 2016 in our hospital. The efficacy, safety and cost of each method were compared between two groups.
Results Thirty patients underwent LSA embolization during TEVAR. Six CCEs in 6 patients were performed from June 2013 to November 2013, while twenty-four CAEs in 24 patients were performed from December 2013 to March 2016. Technical success was achieved in all patients in both groups. No embolization-related complications or type II endoleaks from LSA were recorded during the follow-up period in all patients. In both groups, all embolic materials were detected in the proximal portion of the LSA from the LSA orifice to the vertebral artery origin and no vertebral artery occlusions were detected. The mean compression ratio of AVP II was 58 ± 5.9% of predicted length of standard procedure. In the CAE group, one AVP II was sufficient to achieve complete LSA occlusion in all patients. On the other hand, multiple coils (10.2 ± 2.7) were used in the CCE group (P < .01), resulting in a significantly lower cost incurred in the CAE group (CAE: 129,000 JPY vs. CCE: 639,600 ± 140,060 JPY; P < .01).
Conclusion The CAE is a useful and cost-effective procedure for TEVAR-related LSA embolization.
Background The options for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are limited. We examined the effects of ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, on the fatty liver Shionogi (FLS)-ob/ob mice, a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.
Methods FLS-ob/ob male mice were treated with vehicle (n = 10) and ipragliflozin (n = 8). Serum metabolic markers, histopathology of the liver, hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and hepatic mRNA levels related to fibrosis, lipid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were compared between the two groups.
Results The body weight and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in the ipragliflozin group compared with the control group. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were significantly ameliorated by the treatment with ipragliflozin. Hepatic infiltration of macrophage, expression levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and hepatic mRNA levels of ER stress markers were not significantly modulated by the treatment with ipragliflozin.
Conclusion Ipragliflozin can be a therapeutic option for patients with NASH. The precise mechanisms of action need to be clarified in future studies.
Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) is a chronic liver disease related to metabolic syndrome that can progress to liver cirrhosis. The involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in NAFLD progression and the roles played by activating factor 3 (ATF3) and the downstream nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profiles around the ATF3/NUPR1 axis in relation to the development of NAFLD using novel mouse models.
Methods Fatty liver Shionogi (FLS) mice (n = 12) as a NAFLD model and FLS-ob/ob mice (n = 28) as a NASH model were fed a standard diet. The FLS mice were sacrificed at 24 weeks of age as a control, whereas the FLS-ob/ob mice were sacrificed at 24, 36, and 48 weeks of age. Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were evaluated by biochemical, histological, and gene expression analyses. The expression levels of the ER-stress related genes Jun proto-oncogene (C-jun), Atf3, Nupr1, and C/EBP homologous protein (Chop) were measured in liver tissue. Apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining.
Results Control mice demonstrated hepatic steatosis alone without apparent fibrosis. On the other hand, FLS-ob/ob mice showed severe steatohepatitis at both 24 and 36 weeks of age and severe fibrosis at both 36 and 48 weeks of age. The expression levels of Atf3, Nupr-1, and C-jun significantly increased from 24 to 48 weeks of age in FLS-ob/ob mice compared with control mice. The expression level of Chop was already high in FLS mice and maintained similar levels in FLS-ob/ob mice; the expression level was consistent with the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells.
Conclusion The ATF3/NUPR1 axis plays a pivotal role in NASH progression in association with C-jun and Chop and appears to induce apoptosis from early steatosis in the NASH model mice.
Background The frequency and intensity of hot weather have increased. In Japan, there have been many studies of the relationship between ambulance transports owing to heat stroke (ATHS) and high air temperature in the summer season. However, there have been very few reports focusing on ATHS in spring. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the maximum air temperature on ATHS not only in summer but also in spring, to help with development of effective measures to prevent heat stroke.
Methods We obtained daily ATHS and meteorological data from April to September in 2017 in Tottori Prefecture. We used a time-stratified case-crossover method for data analysis.
Results A total 382 cases of ATHS were identified from April to September in 2017 in Tottori. The number of cases was highest in July, followed by August and May. Maximum air temperature was significantly linked to ATHS. The risk of ATHS was increased 1.13 times when maximum air temperature rose by 1°C. In summer, the risk on extremely hot days (maximum air temperature ≥ 35°C) increased by 5.55 times or more compared with that on days below 30 °C (< 30°C). The risk was approximately four times greater on hot days (≥ 30°C and < 35°C) than that on relatively cooler days (< 30°C) during the spring months of April through May.
Conclusion Maximum air temperature was significantly linked to ATHS. It is necessary to pay particular attention to heat stroke prevention not only on extremely hot days in summer but also on hot days in the spring.
Background The increased prevalence of chronic diseases is a social issue in developing countries.
Methods To create a conceptual model representing the quality of life of low-income people with type 2 diabetes in the Philippines, 117 low-income adult participants in a public support group were studied, and the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores on quality of life (QOL) were analyzed in terms of their relationships with the following factors: basic attributes, physical factors (glycated hemoglobin level, complications, comorbidities, and symptoms), social factors (support, education, and financial status), and cognitive factors (knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and self-management behavior).
Results Based on correlation coefficients among variables and goodness-of-fit test results through a path analysis, 2 models representing causal relationships were created, both of which showed sufficient goodness-of-fit.
Conclusion Glycated hemoglobin levels, knowledge of blood glucose levels, self-efficacy, and self-management behavior (exercise) influenced PCS scores, while age, glycated hemoglobin levels, neuropathy, knowledge of insulin, self-efficacy, and self-management behavior (exercise) influenced MCS scores. The influence of self-efficacy was prominent in both cases, providing an important insight for healthcare professionals to develop effective support methods.
Background Deterioration of cognitive function is an underlying cause of older people’s fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate electroencephalogram and cognitive function in patients hospitalized with fractures, both at admission (before intervention) and at the time of discharge (after intervention), to investigate the effects of rehabilitation on brain function.
Methods A total of 24 patients hospitalized with fracture due to a fall were enrolled in this study. All the subjects received 140 minutes of rehabilitation every day during hospitalization. Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale (TDAS) was used to test their cognitive function. In electroencephalography (EEG), the Neuronal Activity Topography (NAT) system was used to calculate the “Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - normal controls (NLc) differential similarity” in sNAT, ie, a numerical index to show the proximity to AD or normal NLc.
Results There was no significant difference in the total TDAS score among subjects who were examined before and after intervention, but 12 subjects who were observed with deterioration of cognitive functionat at before intervention had a significant improvement in “word-recognition,” a sub-item in TDAS (P < 0.05). In addition, the NAT analysis findings showed that the differential similarity in sNAT significantly approached the NLc pattern (P < 0.05).
Conclusion EEGs in patients with fractures resulting from a fall became more similar to NL patterns at the time of discharge. In addition, recent-memory function of patients who had decline in cognitive function improved.
Background Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in salivary glands and various other organs. Recent studies have revealed that a significant proportion of ACCs harbor gene alterations involving MYB or MYBL1 (mostly fusions with NFIB) in a mutually-exclusive manner. However, its clinical significance remains to be well-established.
Methods We investigated clinicopathological and molecular features of 36 ACCs with special emphasis on the significance of MYBL1 alterations. Reverse-transcription polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to detect MYB/MYBL1–NFIB fusions and MYBL1 alterations, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate MYB expression in the tumors. The results were correlated with clinicopathological profiles of the patients.
Results RT-PCR revealed MYB–NFIB and MYBL1–NFIB fusions in 10 (27.8%) and 7 (19.4%) ACCs, respectively, in a mutually-exclusive manner. FISH for MYBL1 rearrangements was successfully performed in 11 cases, and the results were concordant with those of RT-PCR. Immunohistochemically, strong MYB expression was observed in 23 (63.9%) tumors, none of which showed MYBL1 alterations. Clinicopathologically, a trend of a better disease-specific survival was noted in patients with MYBL1 alterations than in those with MYB–NFIB fusions and/or strong MYB expression; however, the difference was not significant. Interestingly, we found tumors with MYBL1 alterations significantly frequently occurred in the mandibular regions (P = 0.012). Moreover, literature review revealed a similar tendency in a previous study.
Conclusion Our results suggest that there are some biological or etiological differences between ACCs with MYB and MYBL1 alterations. Moreover, the frequent occurrence of MYBL1-associated ACC in the mandibular regions suggests that MYB immunohistochemistry is less useful in diagnosing ACCs arising in these regions. Further studies are warranted to verify our findings.
Background Tanjin is an herbal medicine made from the root of salvia miltiorrhiza. It is predominantly given to arteriosclerotic patients as a supplement to ameliorate the clinical symptoms of cardiovascular diseases. In China, tanjin is used frequently in combination treatment for hypercholesterolemia. Thus, there is a high probability of combination of tanjin and statins in these arteriosclerotic patients. This study investigated the interaction between tanjin and rosuvastatin.
Methods We performed a randomized single-blind, two-period crossover clinical trial on six healthy male volunteers. Volunteers were administered rosuvastatin with placebo or a tanjin-containing drug randomly. The blood samples were collected before drug administration, and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours after administration. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples before and 12 hours after drug administration to measure mRNA. As an animal experiment, an in situ intestinal injection with portal vein sampling model was used to examine the interaction between tanjin and rosuvastatin during the absorption phase. Rosuvastatin or rosuvastatin combined with tanjin solution was injected into the intestine. After injection, blood from the portal vein was collected and the concentration of rosuvastatin was measured by LC/MS/MS analysis. A portion of the intestine and liver from the rats was collected and stored at –80°C for mRNA measurement.
Results In the clinical trial, co-administration of tanjin decreased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of rosuvastatin by 26.85% compared with rosuvastatin alone, and also decreased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of rosuvastatin from 0 to 12 h (AUC0–12) by 19.43%. The relative expression of BCRP and OATP mRNA in human lymphocytes was increased by co-administration of tanjin. In the animal experiment, co-administration of tanjin extract reduced the concentration of rosuvastatin to 84.4, 64.4, and 50.0% at 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. The tanjin-containing drug had a similar effect to tanjin extract. Furthermore, tanjin significantly reduced the absorption of rosuvastatin and the inhibitory effects lasted for at least 24 hours. Tanjin increased the relative expression of BCRP mRNA in the intestine, but it did not change the expression of OATP. Moreover, the concentration of rosuvastatin in the portal vein and systemic blood was reduced. In the liver, tanjin increased both BCRP and OATP mRNA expression, which was consistent with the results from human lymphocytes.
Conclusion The clinical trial and animal experiment revealed that tanjin can significantly reduce the absorption of rosuvastatin. This interaction occurred, at least, at the absorption phase in the small intestine due to the enhanced efflux transport. Thus, as tanjin and rosuvastatin were found to interact, their combination needs to be paid attention to.
Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a therapeutic target for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cetuximab is an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody that inhibits EGFR signaling and proliferation of colorectal cancer and head and neck cancers. Since only few NSCLC patients benefit from cetuximab therapy, we evaluated a novel combination treatment using cetuximab and EGFR small interfering RNA (siRNA) to strongly suppress EGFR signaling and searched for a biomarker in NSCLC cell lines harboring wild-type EGFR.
Methods Alterations in EGFR and its downstream genes in five NSCLC cell lines (A549, Lu99, 86-2, Sq19 and Ma10) were assessed through sequencing. The protein expression levels of these molecules were assessed through western blotting. The effect of combination treatment was determined through cell proliferation assay, caspase-3/7 assay, invasion assay, and migration assay.
Results All cell lines were harboring wild-type EGFR, whereas KRAS, PTEN, TP53 and TP53 were mutated in A549 and Lu99; Lu99 and Sq19; Lu99, 86-2, Sq19 and Ma10; and A549, 86-2, and Sq19 cell lines, respectively. PTEN was not expressed in Sq19, and LKB1 was not expressed in both A549 and Sq19. TP53 was not expressed in both A549 and Lu99. The combination of cetuximab and EGFR siRNA significantly suppressed cell proliferation in 86-2, Sq19 and Ma10, which express wild-type KRAS. It induced apoptosis in A549, 86-2 and Ma10 cells, which express wild type PTEN. The combination treatment had no effect either on cell invasion nor migration in all cell lines.
Conclusion EGFR targeted therapy using the combination of cetuximab and EGFR siRNA is effective in NSCLC cell lines harboring wild-type EGFR. Wild-type KRAS may act as a potential biomarker for response to combination treatment by the induction of apoptosis in cells with wild-type PTEN.
Background Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a useful tool for diagnosing pancreatobiliary diseases, not many facilities perform this technique as it is difficult to master. Currently, two new EUS systems exist: EU-ME2/GF-UCT260, manufactured by Olympus, and SU-1/EG-580UT, manufactured by Fujifilm. Some reports have compared new EUS models to older versions, but the operability and image quality of these two latest systems have not been compared. Our study aimed to compare the usefulness of these two types of EUS.
Methods Forty consecutive patients were recruited and randomized in a two-arm clinical trial; Arm 1: EU-ME2/GF-UCT260 was used only for observation and SU-1/EG-580UT for EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA); Arm 2: SU-1/EG-580UT was used only for observation and EU-ME2/GF-UCT260 for EUS-FNA. Using a crossover design, we evaluated image findings, ease of scope insertion, and visibility of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Each procedure was scored using a 5-point scale (Clinical Trial ID: UMIN000031373).
Results SU-1/EG-580UT was significantly better in terms of lesion-delineating capacity: lesion border (P < 0.001), internal echo (P < 0.001). Significantly easier scope insertion was observed with SU-1/EG-580UT with respect to any insertion into the piriform recess (P = 0.018), the pylorus ring (P < 0.001), and the superior duodenal angle (P < 0.001). Visibility during gastrointestinal observation was also significantly better with the SU-1/EG-580UT (P < 0.001) than with the EU-ME2/GF-UCT260.
Conclusion SU-1/EG-580UT EUS demonstrated superior performance during ultrasonic endoscopic GI observation, operability, and ultrasonic image quality. The result of the superior ultrasound imaging quality of SU-1/EG-580UT EUS will aid in the identification of small pancreatic malignancies with unclear borders and prove useful in evaluating mural nodules of IPMN in detail. These findings could result in an increased use of EUS and improve identification and prognosis of patients with pancreatobiliary diseases.
Background Endoscopy of the digestive tract is useful but is associated with significant pain to the patient. Its safety and tolerability could be improved by an immediate and objective method to evaluate the pain level and give feedback to the examiner. However, under the current circumstances, it is difficult to measure and assess the pain level objectively.
Methods We previously developed a discomfort assessment device that measures the changes in brain activity caused by changes in the pain level by extracting the changes in the erythema index from facial color data. In this study, to evaluate the usefulness of this discomfort assessment device, the association between the changes in the erythema index of facial images during colonoscopy and the subjective pain level during the examination were evaluated. For the recording of the subjective pain level during the examination, a subjective pain level recording device that we developed to measure grip strength over time was used. The subjective pain level, facial image, and percutaneous venous oxygen saturation during the examination were recorded in 30 patients who underwent colonoscopy at our hospital.
Results The duration of colonoscopy was divided into the insertion section and the removal section. The subjective pain level was found to be significantly greater during the insertion section than during the removal section, and the changes in the erythema index of the facial images were significantly different between the two groups.
Conclusion These findings indicate that the erythema index changes on facial images determined by the discomfort assessment device may facilitate objective evaluation of the pain level during colonoscopy.
Background Endoscopic surgery is developing in various clinical specialties. During ear endoscopic surgery, a surgeon has to hold an endoscope with one hand and operate the surgical instruments with another hand. Therefore, the stability of the surgeon’s hand affects the field of surgical view and quality of the surgery considerably. There are few techniques which are used during surgery to stabilize the endoscope. However, no study has evaluated the efficacy of such techniques in detail. This study examined the three dimensional movement of an endoscope to compare and evaluate the effect of various stabilization techniques to reduce the hand tremor while using the endoscope.
Methods A non-randomized controlled trial involving 15 medical students was conducted in Tottori University, Japan. Subjects held an endoscope with their non-dominant hand and manipulated it using three different stabilization techniques i.e. with resting the elbow on the table, resting the endoscope on the ear canal, both with the elbow on the table and endoscope on the ear canal. For the control, subjects were made to use the endoscope without any stabilization technique. The endoscopic movement was measured with and without using the stabilization techniques.
Results The results obtained in this study indicated that manipulating the endoscope with resting the elbow on the table restrains both vertical (Y-axis) and optical axis (Z-axis) direction of tremor, and manipulating the endoscope by resting it on the ear canal restrains both vertical (Y-axis) and horizontal axis (X-axis) direction while the combined use of both the techniques reduces the endoscope movement in all the three X, Y and Z axes.
Conclusion In conclusion, concomitant use of both techniques appears to be clinically beneficial in endoscopic ear surgery.
Background Recent rapid advances in molecular biology have led the discovery of disease-specific novel fusion genes in a variety of soft tissue tumors. In this study, we attempted to detect these fusion genes using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues and investigated their clinical utility and factors that affect the results of examination.
Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of tumor-specific fusion genes was performed using 41 FFPE tumor samples obtained from 37 patients representing nine histological types of soft tissue tumors that were diagnosed from 2006 to 2017 in our laboratory.
Results Fusion genes in 19 (51.3%) out of 37 cases were detected successfully. Relatively high detection rates were observed in synovial sarcomas (100%, 4/4) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (75%, 3/4). The detection rates of fusion genes were inversely correlated with the storage period of FFPE blocks. Decalcification by Plank-Rychlo solution significantly affected detection rates of the internal control gene (P = 0.0038). In contrast, there was no significant difference in detection rates between primary and metastatic lesion, or biopsy and resection material, or presence and absence of treatment history.
Conclusion In certain histological types, detection of disease-specific fusion genes of soft tissue tumors using FFPE tissues showed high sensitivity and thus had diagnostic utility. However, due to the diversity of fusion patterns and the low-quality of nucleic acid, the detection rate as a whole was sluggish and required further improvement. For factors affecting the detection results, our results suggested that it was impossible to detect fusion genes by decalcified FFPE tissues, but it may be not necessary to consider factors such as the type of specimen (biopsy or resection) and treatment history of the patients when selecting the FFPE tissues.
Background Nutritional status is strongly associated with prognosis in cancer patients. Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score is a nutritional marker based on serum albumin, cholesterol, and total lymphocyte count. We investigated the prognostic significance of a combination of the tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CONUT score (T-CONUT) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
Methods A total of 522 patients who underwent surgery for CRC at our hospital were retrospectively enrolled in this study.
Results Patients were divided into groups based on the results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis as follows: CONUThigh (CONUT score ≥ 3) and CONUTlow (CONUT score < 3), and CEAlow (< 5 ng/mL) and CEAhigh (≥ 5 ng/mL). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of patients in the CONUTlow and CONUThigh groups were 76.0% and 53.9%, respectively (P < 0.0001), and in the CEAlow and CEAhigh groups were 80.7% and 47.6%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Regarding T-CONUT, the 5-year OS rates of patients with CEAlow/CONUTlow, CEAlow/CONUThigh, CEAhigh/CONUTlow, and CEAhigh/CONUThigh were 84.7%, 69%, 55.3%, and 36.1%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified T-CONUT score as an independent prognostic indicator in CRC patients.
Conclusion T-CONUT may be a useful tool for predicting prognosis in CRC patients.
Background In Japan, some nursing and health science universities that train nurses and/or clinical laboratory technicians have a curriculum in which students observe medical students performing a cadaver dissection. Observing a cadaver dissection is believed to affect the formation of a student’s professional identity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of observing a cadaver dissection on the professional identity of nursing and clinical laboratory science students to find an effective educational support system for developing professional identity.
Methods Sophomores majoring in nursing science or clinical laboratory science were asked to complete a questionnaire with a professional identity scale before and after hands-on experience of a cadaver dissection performed by medical students. After their hands-on session was complete, they responded to a free-answer question about acquiring a professional identity.
Results The professional identity score of nursing students significantly decreased after the hands-on experience of the cadaver dissection. No significant change in professional identity score was observed in the clinical laboratory science students. However, the effect size (r) was moderate.
Conclusion Although professional identity formation fluctuates immediately after the experience of the hands-on experience of a cadaver dissection, the findings do suggest that these hands-on sessions will be effective for developing their professional identity if educational support is provided to help them utilize what they learned through reflection.
Background Self-care agency is an important determinant of self-care behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the causal relationship between self-care agency and healthy behavior, and to construct a conceptual model of healthy behavior among older people living in a rural community.
Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey at the Hino, a town in western Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Participants who were enrolled in the Good Ageing and Intervention against Nursing Care and Activity Decline (GAINA) study from 2014 to 2018 (467 new participants) were initially investigated. Of 398 participants aged ≥ 65 years, 5 were excluded due to missing data, and thus 393 were analyzed. Nurse researchers conducted face-to-face interviews with participants to check the accuracy of data obtained from a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, physical condition (comorbidities, knee pain, low back pain, and locomotive syndrome), healthy behavior, and self-care agency. Correlations among variables were investigated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis, and path analysis was performed to assess causal relationships.
Results A total of 393 persons (160 men and 233 women) were investigated, ranging in age from 65 to 92 years, with a mean age of 75.1 years (SD: 6.9 years). Path analysis revealed poor fit of a model in which pain and locomotive syndrome were factors inhibiting healthy behavior. When the model included only self-care agency, the indices of model fit were almost satisfactory (Goodness-of-fit index = 0.967, Adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.900, Comparative fit index = 0.951, and Root mean square error of approximation = 0.088), and the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.38. The self-care agency items with the greatest influence on healthy behavior were the ability to “grasp the techniques/tips needed to maintain health,” and the ability to “persist with healthy behavior.”
Conclusion Self-care agency can promote healthy behavior among community-dwelling older people. Regardless of physical problems such as pain and locomotive syndrome, older people have the potential to adopt positive healthy behavior if they acquire self-care agency.
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between preoperative FDG-PET parameters and the World Health Organization (WHO) classification or Masaoka staging system of thymic epithelial tumors.
Methods We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with histologically proven thymic epithelial tumors who underwent FDG-PET/CT before surgical resection. FDG-PET parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolytic activity (TLG), were measured. These PET parameters were compared in the Masaoka staging system and WHO classification. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to identify the cut-off values of PET parameters for the accurate differentiation of early and advanced stages in the Masaoka staging system.
Results There were 17 low-risk thymomas (1 type A, 9 type AB, and 7 type B1), 8 high-risk thymomas (4 type B2 and 4 type B3), and 7 thymic carcinomas (7 squamous cell carcinoma). Their Masaoka stages were as follows: 24 in the early stage (stages I and II) and 8 in the advanced stage (stage III). Regarding the WHO classification, only SUVmax showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). In the Masaoka stage, all PET parameters were significantly higher in the advanced stage than in the early stage (P < 0.05). In the ROC analysis to predict the early and advanced stages in thymic epithelial tumors, the area under the curve was the highest for TLG among the PET parameters examined and the cut-off value of TLG for discriminating the early from advanced stage with maximal sensitivity and specificity was 30.735.
Conclusion Although volumetric PET parameters, such as MTV and TLG, did not correlate with the WHO classification, a significant correlation was observed between SUVmax and the WHO classification. In the Masaoka staging system, volumetric PET parameters may achieve more precise staging than SUVmax.
Mycosis fungoides, the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, displays a broad spectrum of clinical, histological and phenotypic variants with different prognostic impacts. The classic immunophenotype is CD3+/CD4+/CD45RO+memory T cells. CD4/CD8 double-negative mycosis fungoides is rare. Here we describe the clinicopathological features of CD4/CD8 double-negative mycosis fungoides in a 55-year-old female with a review of the literature. Although the CD4/CD8 double-negative phenotype appears to be associated with an unusual clinical presentation, it does not appear to confer prognostic significance.
We report the case of a 6-year-old male who developed recurrent erythema nodosum (EN) at the age of 3 years. The patient exhibited hypertelorism, low-set ears, micrognathia, moderate intellectual disability, thin long fingers, loose anagen hair, and prominent palmoplantar wrinkles. A heterozygous single nucleotide variant in the SHOC2 gene (c.4 A > G, p.S2G) was identified. Patients with a SHOC2 mutation exhibit a unique combination of ectodermal abnormalities including darkly pigmented skin and loose anagen hair. This report is the first to describe EN in a patient with SHOC2 mutation, and to examine the patient’s hair using scanning electron microscopy. We hypothesize that the RAS/MAPK pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of cutaneous lesions in patients with SHOC2 mutations via autoinflammation and disturbance of epithelial stem cells.
We report an 8-year-old girl who experienced daily episodes of visual and somesthetic distortion and was diagnosed with Alice in wonderland syndrome (AIWS). Ophthalmologic assessment revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 0.2 in both eyes, and bilateral constricted tubular or spiral visual fields. Augmented amplitude of visually evoked potentials was revealed, and treatment with lomerizine and valproate showed favorable effect on the visual/somesthetic distortion as well as the visual field and acuity. Psychogenic visual problems can co-exist with the typical sensory distortion in AIWS, similarly to the case of psychogenic pseudo-seizures in subjects with epilepsy. Otherwise, an ambiguous borderline between psychological and physical pathomechanisms in migraine may also be characteristic of the migraine-related AIWS.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common submucosal tumor of the stomach. GISTs are often detected by esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy. We have previously reported on endoscopically invisible medium-sized exophytic type GISTs. We present here a case of small exophytic GIST detected by transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) in which the natural history of the tumor could be traced retrospectively through incidental findings obtained during follow-up for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm by magnetic resonance of imaging or computed tomography over about 10 years. The tumor appeared 7 years before its detection, and the doubling time was calculated as 6.9 years. In conclusion, low-risk exophytic GIST was estimated to have taken at least about 7 years to reach a size detectable by TUS.