Adenovirus often causes respiratory disease outbreaks in military training soldiers. Compared with adenovirus pneumonia in young military adults, symptoms arising from febrile respiratory illness (FRI) caused by adenovirus have not been previously evaluated in Korean soldiers. We conducted an event-based outbreak investigation involving 712 male soldiers aged 19 to 21 years from March 14 to 30, 2012 to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with pneumonia and FRI caused by adenovirus. We described the laboratory and radiological characteristics of patients with adenovirus pneumonia. Among these, 407 cases of FRI and 15 cases of pneumonia were identified through active surveillance (attack rate of FRI, 57.16%; attack rate of pneumonia, 2.11%). Fire training and march training may present environmental risk factors for adenovirus-associated outbreaks. Most symptoms were mild. The most frequent symptom in patients with pneumonia and FRI was cough. Patients with pneumonia were associated with an increased incidence of dizziness (crude odds ratio [cOR], 9.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.38–37.15) and a decreased incidence of rhinorrhea (cOR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04–0.53) during adenovirus-associated outbreaks. Differential leukocyte count revealed high monocytes, low lymphocytes, and low eosinophils, and chest computed tomography revealed a consolidation pattern and right lobar pneumonia. These findings warrant a high level of suspicion for adenovirus pneumonia.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe form of dengue fever (DF). Recent in vitro studies indicate that complement reduces the infection-enhancing activity of dengue antibodies, suggesting its in vivo role in controlling viremia levels and disease severity. In this study, the complement hemolytic activity (CH50) and levels of complement components and related factors in dengue patients in Indonesia were assessed. Based on the number of days since fever onset, DF patients were compared with patients at the DHF pre-critical phase who showed deterioration within 2 days. The mean CH50 values and levels of C2, C4, and factors B and H in the DHF pre-critical phase group were significantly lower than those in the DF group. The mean CH50 values were significantly correlated with C4, factor B, or factor H levels, indicating their responsibility for reduced CH50 values. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of the DHF pre-critical phase group (78%) than the DF group (33%) was positive for the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. These results suggested that antibody-dependent enhancement of infection occurs during a period of low complement activity, which is associated with NS1 levels during the acute phase in some patients, thereby leading to increased viremia levels and greater disease severity.
We conducted a hospital-based descriptive study to describe the changing pattern of patient numbers, characteristics, and mortality rates among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in northern Thailand over 15 years. The survival status on October 31, 2010 of all HIV-infected adults who attended an HIV center in a government hospital between 1995 and 2010 was ascertained. In total, 3,706 patients were registered, 2,118 (57.2%) of which were male. The survival status of 3,439 patients (92.9%) was available. In addition, 1,543 deaths were identified out of 12,858 person-year-observations (PYO) resulting in a mortality rate of 12.4 deaths/100 PYO (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.3–13.0). An initial decline in mortality rates was observed prior to 1999, probably because of an increase in the proportion of less symptomatic patients. After the introduction of the national highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) program, a profound decline in mortality rates was observed, reaching 2.0 deaths/100 PYO (95% CI, 1.4–2.9) in 2010. Simultaneously, the number of patients on follow-up increased by nearly fourfold. Although HAART has drastically improved the survival of HIV-infected patients, the number of patients receiving therapy at this HIV clinic has substantially increased. While referral of HIV patients to general physicians' care should be urged, we cannot overemphasize the importance of preventing new HIV infections.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common nosocomial infection. Lung cancer patients have a high risk of developing CDI because of continuous antibiotic treatment or chemotherapy, prolonged hospitalization, and general weakness. This study aimed to analyze predisposing or associated risk factors for CDI in lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This study was a retrospective review of 188 lung cancer patients who were admitted to the Wonkwang University Hospital between 2008 and 2009. Of the 188 patients, 44 were diagnosed with CDI. The albumin levels were significantly lower and the performance status (PS) score was significantly higher in lung cancer patients with CDI than in those without CDI (P < 0.05). In conclusion, clinicians should consider the possibility of CDI occurrence in lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, particularly in those with low albumin levels and high PS scores, because most lung cancer patients have a high risk of developing CDI.
In this study, a specific quantitative PCR system for the detection and identification of Prototheca zopfii genotypes was developed using a TaqMan® MGB probe and ResoLight dye. The P. zopfii-specific primers 18PZF1 and 18PZR1 were generated on the basis of the alignment of the small subunit ribosomal DNA domain base sequences of the genera Chlorella and Prototheca obtained from DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank, and the TaqMan® MGB probe PZP1 was designed corresponding to this amplification region. Analysis of the melting curves of the amplicons using ResoLight dye was able to differentiate between P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2. The specificity of this detection system was examined using strains from a culture collection (28 strains) and clinical isolates (140 strains). The TaqMan® MGB probe amplicon was detected only in reference strains of P. zopfii (n = 12) and clinical isolates (n = 135). Ninety-two clinical specimens from cows with mastitis (36 samples) and healthy controls (56 samples) were also tested. All isolates from milk samples (n = 92) and clinical isolates (n = 135) were identified as P. zopfii genotype 2.
Intrauterine transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of the high prevalence of HBV in endemic areas; however, the mechanisms underlying intrauterine transmission of HBV remain unknown. To explore the role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system, in intrauterine transmission of HBV, we determined MBL levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in cord serum of 7 intrauterine-infected neonates and 30 non-infected neonates born to HBV-positive mothers, and 30 control neonates born to HBV-negative mothers. We observed significant differences in cord serum MBL levels among the three groups (P < 0.001). Non-infected neonates had significantly higher MBL levels than controls (P < 0.001), and intrauterine-infected neonates had significantly lower serum MBL levels than non-infected neonates (P < 0.001). However, serum MBL levels were not significantly different between intrauterine-infected neonates and controls (P = 0.800). Our results indicate that maternal HBV infection induces an increase in fetal MBL levels and the absence of this increase is possibly associated with intrauterine transmission of HBV, suggesting that MBL plays a role in intrauterine transmission of HBV.
A 4-year-old girl who was positive for adenovirus according to a rapid immunochromatographic test conducted at a hospital, progressed to hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The presence of adenovirus serotype 41 (AdV-41) was confirmed by TaqMan real-time PCR and sequence analysis. However, most enteric viral infections cause mild to moderate diarrhea. In the present case, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O165:HNM was isolated concomitantly with AdV-41. In addition, O165 antibody was specifically detected in patient sera. The EHEC isolate was positive for the virulence genes stx1, stx2a, eae type ε, ehxA, and norV. Therefore, we concluded that EHEC O165:HNM was the precise pathogen leading to HUS in this patient.
Severe flooding, which is associated with numerous outbreaks of a wide range of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by enteric viruses, occurred in all areas of Thailand in 2011. To determine the prevalence of five human enteric viruses, namely enterovirus, rotavirus (RV), norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis E virus, in the flood water, 100 water samples were collected from flood-damaged areas in central Thailand. Viral RNA was extracted from concentrated samples and analyzed by RT-PCR and sequencing. NV was the most commonly detected pathogen in the tested samples (14%). RV and HAV were detected in 9% and 7% of samples, respectively. This study is the first to detect enteric viral genes in flood water in Thailand. Furthermore, it is the first to detect an NV gene in any type of environmental water in Thailand. These results provide useful information for estimating the risk of flood waterborne viral infection.
Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACVr) mutants were generated from plaque-purified ACV-sensitive herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by culturing the virus in Vero cells in the presence of 2-amino-7-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) purine (S2242). Three DNA polymerase (DNApol)-associated ACVr HSV-1 generated under ACV selection in a previous study (Suzutani, T., Ishioka, K., De Clercq, E., et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 47, 1707–1713, 2003) were also included. The sensitivity of the mutants to other antivirals and their neurovirulence were determined. The treatment efficacy of ACV and ganciclovir (GCV) against ACVr HSV-1 infections was evaluated in mice. Amino acid substitutions were demonstrated in conserved regions II and III in DNApol in 5 of the 6 mutants, while the other substitution was located in non-conserved regions. DNApol-associated ACVr clones showed cross-resistance to foscarnet, penciclovir, and vidarabine but were sensitive or hypersensitive to GCV, brivudin, sorivudine, and spongothymidine. The ACVr clone with an N815S mutation in DNApol showed similar neurovirulence to that of the parent virus; however, those with other mutations showed attenuation. GCV was effective in the treatment of the ACVr clone with similar virulence to that of parent HSV-1, while ACV was less effective in mice. These results indicate the importance of the characterization of HSV-1 isolates for the proper treatment of HSV-1 infections exhibiting ACV-resistance.
We evaluated the seroprevalence of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases among Japanese healthcare students to create immunization guidelines. Between 2007 and 2012, a total of 1746 Japanese medical, nursing, and paramedical students were serologically screened for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) antibodies at the time of admission. In 2007, the seroprevalence of measles and mumps was 52.7% and 65.6%, respectively. The seroprevalence of measles dramatically increased to 96.6% in 2009 and was then sustained at >90%. The seroprevalence of mumps gradually increased to >80.0% between 2010 and 2012. The seroprevalence of rubella remained at >90% except in 2008 (85.6%), and the seroprevalence of varicella was sustained at >92% throughout 2007–2012. The seroprevalence of HBV antibody remained at <7% during 2007–2012. Although the seroprevalence of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases among Japanese healthcare students increased during the 2007–2012 study period, a substantial number of students were susceptible to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Therefore, we propose targeted immunization of Japanese healthcare students using serological screening prior to clinical training.
The characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection in Japan have not yet been completely established compared with those in Europe and the United States. CA-MRSA infections with the USA300 clone are very rare in Japan. In this study, we describe 4 cases of CA-MRSA infections, particularly the USA300 clone. Case 1 involved a 21-year-old man without any remarkable medical history or risk factors of CA-MRSA who suffered from a rapidly progressive infection in his left arm. Case 2 involved a 34-year-old man and Case 3 a 22-year-old man who presented with recurrent and refractory furuncles. Both men were members of a combat sports gym where other members also had skin infections. Case 4 involved a 60-year-old man with lumbar canal stenosis who suffered from surgical site infection 7 days after lumbar laminectomy and posterolateral fusion. Only 5 cases of USA300 infections were reported in Japan from 2007 to 2009, and 4 cases were detected at Tokyo Medical University Hospital from 2010 to 2011. The diversity of the routes of infection in these cases may indicate the possible spread of the USA300 clone in Japan.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia.
The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) was a considerable public health concern worldwide. Significant morbidity and mortality were observed in complicated cases, despite the early administration of neuramidase inhibitors. The limitations of neuramidase inhibitor monotherapy have renewed interest in combination antiviral therapy or higher-dose oseltamivir therapy. Herein, we report our clinical experience and virological outcomes with high-dose oseltamivir or combination antiviral therapy in seriously complicated 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection. Eight patients were treated with high-dose oseltamivir (150 mg twice a day), and 6 patients were treated with triple combination antiviral drugs (150 mg oseltamivir twice a day, 100 mg amantadine twice a day, and 300 mg ribavirin three times a day). Nine of 14 patients (64%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and 6 (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Viral clearance was obtained in 9 of 12 patients (75%) after 5 days of antiviral therapy. Two patients died within 5 days of antiviral therapy. The overall mortality rate was 29% (4/14).
A total of 121 Escherichia coli (47 extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] and 74 non-ESBL producers) and 75 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (49 ESBL and 26 non-ESBL producers) were collected from urine samples between October 2010 and April 2011 at a university hospital and assessed for the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. Twenty-seven E. coli (22.3%) and 49 K. pneumoniae (65.3%) isolates harbored PMQR genes, which mostly consisted of aac(6′)-Ib-cr and qnrS, followed by qnrB and qnrA. Among the 76 PMQR-positive isolates, 15 (19.7%) and 2 (2.6%) carried 2 and 3 different PMQR genes, respectively. However, qnrC, qnrD, and qepA were not found in any isolate. The PMQR genes were more prevalent in ESBL producers than in non-ESBL producers (42.6% versus 9.5% in E. coli and 81.6% versus 34.6% in K. pneumoniae). Approximately 35%–60% of the PMQR-positive isolates were susceptible or intermediately susceptible to fluoroquinolones. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR method revealed that most PMQR-positive isolates belonged to different strains, indicating the spread of these resistance determinants. PMQR gene transfer by conjugation was successful in 10%–25% of the test donors. This study showed a high prevalence of PMQR genes among both organisms. Clinical use of fluoroquinolones for the treatment of infections caused by fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains harboring PMQR genes may lead to decreased therapeutic efficacy.
This study aimed to determine the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infections in children with phenylketonuria (PKU). Sixty-six children with PKU (35 boys, 31 girls; mean age, 8.2 ± 6.7 years) and 32 outpatient controls (15 boys, 17 girls; mean age, 9.6 ± 4.7 years) were studied. Socioeconomic factors did not differ between the two groups. The frequency of H. pylori infections was higher in patients with PKU (28.1%) than in healthy controls (9.4%). In particular, a higher frequency of infection was detected in patients with PKU with poor metabolic control (51.8%). The frequency of H. pylori infection in patients with PKU with good metabolic control was only 10.2%. There was no difference in the mean total WISC-R score between the poor and good metabolic control groups. A high frequency of H. pylori infection in children with PKU with poor metabolic control could be related to many factors. Advanced and standardized clinical studies on H. pylori infections in children with PKU are required.
Isolation of novel types of human adenovirus D (HAdV-53, -54, and -56) from keratoconjunctivitis patients has been reported since 2008. We examined the molecular epidemiology of HAdV-D strains using 39 field isolates collected from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) patients from 2001 to 2010 in the province of Osaka, Japan. The molecular types were analyzed by sequencing partial penton base gene, loop 1 in the hexon, and complete fiber genes. Of the 39 isolates, the majority were HAdV-19 (14/39, 35.9%) and -37 (13/39, 33.3%), followed by -53 (4/39, 10.3%) and -54 (8/39, 20.5%). Analysis of annual distribution showed that HAdV-19 and -37 were detected before 2004, whereas HAdV-53 and -54 were first identified in 2001 and 2003, respectively, and persistently detected during the study period. It is noted that both HAdV-53 and -54 isolates were misclassified by the serological method. Altogether, the molecular analysis elucidated the epidemiology of HAdV-D and presence of novel types from the early 2000s in Osaka. Further genetic analysis of serologically classified HAdV-D isolates may provide insights into the epidemiology of EKC.
Carbapenem resistance due to OXA-type carbapenemases seriously limits therapeutic options in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Previous studies have shown the presence of OXA-51, OXA-58, and OXA-23 carbapenemases but not OXA-24/40 in A. baumannii in Turkey. In this study, we investigated carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) in A. baumannii and the molecular epidemiology of CHDL producers at the Dokuz Eylul Hospital, Izmir Turkey, and detected blaOXA-24/40 in a clinical isolate from a patient in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). The specific enzyme type was OXA-72. Additional studies revealed 22 more isolates from 20 patients and that the OXA-72-producing strain caused an outbreak in the medical ICU from September 2012 to March 2013, which still continues. To our knowledge, this is the first report of OXA-24/40 carbapenemases in A. baumannii in Turkey. Emergency infection control should be implemented following the arrival of a new OXA at a hospital where A. baumannii is highly endemic.
We present the first reported case of systemic infection with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135 sequence type (ST)-11 in Japan. A 44-year-old woman presented with high fever, sore throat, and fatigue and was diagnosed with N. meningitidis bacteremia. The causative strain was identified as serogroup W-135 ST-11 by polymerase chain reaction and multilocus sequence typing. Approximately 1 month after treatment, she developed high fever, dyspnea, chest pain, and shoulder pain due to pericarditis, polyarthritis, and tenosynovitis, which are all relatively common immunoreactive complications of W-135 ST-11 meningococcal infections. This causative strain was the same as that responsible for an outbreak of meningitis among Hajj pilgrims in 2000. The strain is now found worldwide because it can attain a high carriage rate and has a long duration of carriage. We suspect that our patient's infection was acquired from an imported chronic carrier.
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is a major etiologic agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We investigated the frequency of DEC in stool samples from 125 diarrheal children (age, 1–10 years) and 92 non-diarrheal children in Surabaya, Indonesia. The non-diarrheal children served as healthy controls. DEC was detected in 23 of 125 (18.4%) and 47 of 92 (51.1%) samples in the diarrheal and non-diarrheal children, respectively. Enteropathogenic E. coli was the most prevalent in the non-diarrheal children (25.0%), and its prevalence was significantly higher than that in the diarrheal children (0.8%) (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (4.3%) was detected only in the non-diarrheal children (P = 0.031). This is the first study comparing between diarrheal children with non-diarrheal or healthy children to investigate the role of DEC in pediatric diarrheal diseases in Indonesia.
In this study, we analyzed the epidemiology of measles cases from January 2004 to December 2011 and measles immunity levels among a healthy population from January to June 2012, in Baoji, Shaanxi Province. This study aimed to identify susceptible populations to measles and to establish methods of measles prevention and control. Measles incidence was at the lowest level in 2011 (0.32 per 100,000 populations). Among these patients, the proportion of those younger than 8 months and those older than 27 years of age was relatively high. The overall antibody positive rate was 78.90%, and the average antibody geometric mean concentration was 562.15 mIU/ml. Measles immunity level was high among children aged 8 months to 6 years and low among infants aged 1–7 months. To reduce the incidence of measles among infants younger than 8 months, implementation of measles vaccine (MV) for women of childbearing age is recommended. Measles immunity level was low among some individuals vaccinated with aqueous MV and lyophilized MV. Supplementary immunization will be recommended for freshmen in universities and colleges, where many students are recruited from various parts of China.