An investigation on the prevalence of Aeromonas in gastrointestinal illnesses of pediatric inpatients 1 month to 3 years of age was conducted from February 1997 through January 1998 in Madras. Sixteen Aeromonas spp. were isolated from 11 male and five female children among the 341 pediatric inpatients suffering from acute diarrhoea. A. caviae, which was isolated from nine cases, was found to be the most predominant isolate, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria, isolated from six cases, and A. hydrophila, isolated from one case. Shigella flexneri was recovered along with Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria serotype 035 from one 5-month-old female child. We did not notice any seasonal pattern in the association between Aeromonas and childhood gastroenteritis. None of the 147 stool samples obtained from age-matched non-diarrhoeic control children yielded Aeromonas spp. Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from patients suffering from gastroenteritis was found to be significant (χ2=7.1312; P=0.008, <0.01) . Among the 16 Aeromonas isolates, seven isolates of A. caviae and two isolates of A. veronii biovar sobria induced a secretory response in rabbit intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers as demonstrated by a significant increase in the short circuit current. Nine of the 16 Aeromonas isolates, including three isolates of A. caviae, five isolates of A. veronii biovar sobria, and the solitary isolate of A. hydrophila were also cytotoxic to CHO cells. Five of the six isolates of A. veronii biovar sobria and the A. hydrophila isolate produced hemolysin. The results of this study indicate that Aeromonas species are important causative agents of diarrhoea in childhood gastroenteritis and are prevalent throughout the year in Madras.
This study was designed to study the in vivo prevalence and the heterogeneity of H, pylori in patients with gastroduodenal diseases in central Taiwan. H. pylori infection was detected in 74.1% (575/776) of the symptomatic population studied. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased from 11.1% in those between the ages of one to 20, to 82.9% in those between the ages of 41 and 50, and to 84% in those between the ages of 51 and 60. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between men and women. Among different blood types, the prevalence and relative risk of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in blood group O patients (90.3%) than in blood group A (41%), blood group B (27.4%), or blood group AB (62%) patients. Metronidazole resistance was found in 6.7% of the primary isolates. The prevalence of metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strains was higher in women (7.69%) than in men (6.25%), but this difference was not significant. A total of 88% of H. pylori strains were cagA-positive. CagA gene-positive strains were present in 90.1% of duodenal ulcers, 90% of duodenal ulcers combined with gastric ulcer, 85.8% of gastric ulcers, and 69.2% of gastritis patients, and was significantly higher in peptic ulcer disease groups than in the gastritis group. In conclusion, there was a low incidence (6.7%) of metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strains and a high prevalence (88%) of H. pylori cagA-positive strains in central Taiwan. This study also demonstrated a significant in vivo correlation between active H. pylori infection and blood group O-positive patients, and showed a significant association between cagA gene-positive H. pylori strains and the development of peptic ulcers.
Iron is an important nutrient required by bacteria for optimal growth. Acquisition of iron from the host where iron is restricted is an important mediator of bacterial pathogenesis. In iron deplete chemically defined medium (CDM-Fe) growth of Acinetobacter baumannii was restricted as compared to iron replete medium (CDM+Fe) . Bacteria developed four high molecular weight outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of 88, 84, 80 and 77 kDa in CDM-Fe medium which were absent in CDM+Fe medium, and are known iron regulated outer membrane proteins (IROMPs) . A. baumannii secreted siderophores extracellularly into the medium which act as iron chelators which had been demonstrated in the supernatants of CDM-Fe media. The siderophore was of catechol type. This shows that A. baumannii under iron restricted conditions express IROMPs along with production of catechol type siderophore in order to acquire iron from the external milieu.
Atayal aborigines, living at an altitude of 1, 500-1, 600 m in northeastern Taiwan, still hunt for wild animals with the help of hunting dogs. In this study, the latex agglutination test (LAT) was used to detect sera anti-toxoplasma antibodies in this community as a measure of their exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. The positive rates for sera anti-toxoplasma antibodies were 21.8 % and 19.6%, respectively, in 422 Atayal and 51 hunting dogs tested. Neither of the positive rates were found to be significantly different between male (22.1 %) and female A tayal (21.4%), or between humans (21.8%) and dogs (19.6%) (P>0.05) when compared by the Chi-Squared test (χ2-test) . A significant difference was observed between the positive rates in adults (28.3%) and children (18.7%) (P<0.05), and the age pattern of prevalence is consistent with an increasing duration of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii with age. The consumption of raw liver of wild animals or insufficiently cooked meat may be the major mode of transmission of toxoplasmosis in Atayal.
The program of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare started in 1981 apprehended in 1995 emergence of adenovirus type 7 in Japan. We analyzed the reported data of type 7 comparing with those of type 3, both belonging to the same subgenus B, and the following results were obtained: After 1981, the main serotypes in the reports of adenovirus isolation/ detection were types 3, 2, and 1 in this order. The reports of isolation of adenovirus type 7 used to be extremely few, however, suddenly increased in 1995. In 1997, reports of isolation of adenovirus type 3 decreased and those of type 7 acquired the third place after those of types 2 and 3. Type 7 infection occur almost every month, but most frequently during May-September. The ages of cases from which type 7 was isolated were 0-4 years accounting for 55%, 5-9 years 35%, teens 6.3% and adults 4.0%, being similar proportions to those yielding type 3. Clinical diagnoses of cases yielding adenovirus type 7 were pharyngo-conjunctival fever (PCF) and influenza-like illness, these two accounting for half. The symptoms were severe, being characterized by higher maximum body temperature during the feverish period and severe pneumonia. Encephalitis and arthro-muscular pain were seen in only type 7-infected cases, although such cases were few.
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