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  • 日英比較研究
    布施 晶子
    現代社会学研究
    2001年 14 巻 49-72
    発行日: 2001/06/29
    公開日: 2009/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    本稿の主題は,共働き家族の子どものケアに関する日英の比較研究である。問題意識の基盤には,福祉国家体制のジェンダー・パースペクティブに基づく再検討という理論的課題の追究が据えられている。本稿の論点をクリアにするための予備的作業として,第一に,日英両国における既婚女性の就労状況の推移,第二に,共働き家族における子どものケアの状況,保育施設等の拡充状況の推移について,データに基づく比較分析を行った。次いで,第三に,本稿のメインの展開として,以上の作業を通じて浮かび上がった五つの論点―既婚の女性労働力への経済的要請の相違,J.ボウルビィの影響の相違,家族と国家の関係をめぐる認識の相違,「チルドレン・イン・ニード(要援護児童)」についての認識の相違,市民運動の展開にみる相違―についての検証作業を試みた。
  • ―保育環境評価スケール(ECERS-R)の位置づけに注目して―
    埋橋 玲子
    保育学研究
    2004年 42 巻 2 号 196-204
    発行日: 2004/12/25
    公開日: 2017/08/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The definition of "quality" in early childhood education and care depends on the background of the society which, in the case of the U.K., includes various kinds of people. Currently, the U.K. is experiencing a big surge in extension of services in early childhood education and care, after a long absence of the government's active intervention after World War II. The U.K. government sponsored a project called "Effective Provision of Pre-School Education" which used two early childhood environment rating scales to evaluate the quality of pre-school education. The usage of the rating scales indicates a high priority of assuring children's cognitive and social development in their later school life. The current U.K. government policy suggests the necessity of clear definition of quality of early childhood education and care in Japan.
  • ―イースト・アングリア大学を事例として―
    水引 貴子
    敬心・研究ジャーナル
    2017年 1 巻 1 号 37-43
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/09/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    本稿の目的は、日本の保育者及び保育従事者における「保育の質の担保」という課題に対して、イギリスの保育制度改革と保育者養成校のカリキュラムを紹介し、若干の考察を試みることである。わが国では保育士不足解消のために保育事業参入に関する規制緩和によって、保育士資格のない者も保育職に就きやすくなった。しかし、保育の質の保障という課題が浮き彫りとなり、これを考察するうえでイギリスの事例を参考にする。イギリスでは、1990年代半ばから政府が保育基準の制定や保育職資格制度の整備などをはじめとする改革を行っている。加えて、イギリスの保育基準(EYFS)が学べる保育者養成校であるイースト・アングリア大学の教育課程を紹介する。その特徴として、大学院で資格を取得することが主流であること、3つの実習先で計約20週間の実習期間があること、実習の際に子どもを捉える方法を細かく指導されることなどが明らかになった。

  • 表 真美
    日本家政学会誌
    2018年 69 巻 11 号 768-774
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 増田 幸弘
    法政論叢
    2008年 45 巻 1 号 63-75
    発行日: 2008/11/15
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to consider the legal policies regarding grandparents in Japan. To this end, we have analysed two things; the legal structures of grandparent-grandchild contact in Japan and in Canada, and the public support systems for grandparents who care for grandchildren while their parents are working in Japan, the UK, Singapore and Australia. What I wish to show in this paper are two things. First, it is necessary to consider the enactment of the legal procedure for grandparent-grandchild contact in Japan. Second, it is necessary to introduce some support systems (e.g. financial support) for grandparents as child caregivers in Japan. This paper summarizes the presentation made at the convention of the Japan Association of Legal and Political Sciences at Kinki University in June, 2008.
  • 広瀬 美和
    日本教育学会大會研究発表要項
    2007年 66 巻 88-89
    発行日: 2007/08/21
    公開日: 2018/04/20
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
  • 庄司 洋子
    家族社会学研究
    1999年 11 巻 11 号 133-135
    発行日: 1999/07/31
    公開日: 2009/08/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • OECD報告書『人生の始まりこそ力強く(Starting Strong)』を手がかり
    石黒 万里子
    日英教育研究フォーラム
    2017年 21 巻 71-84
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/11/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper examines the radical changes in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England since the end of the twentieth century, with special consideration of the global circumstances around ECEC and by using the framework of transitology (Cowen 2014). ECEC in England reflects political, economic, and social changes at a global level, and it has the discourse of ‘school readiness’ as its legitimacy.  According to the OECD Report Starting Strong, increasing global interests on ECEC have changed the meaning of ECEC, regarding it as a public good, instead of a private matter, and the report focuses on an integrated approach to ECEC, the goal of achievement and the monitoring of ECEC services, staff and child development. Partly it aims the economic development in the period of low growth.  In addition, worldwide organisations such as the WHO, UNESCO and UNICEF also look at ECEC in terms of humanitarian support. They focus on the children’s well-being, promoting health and preventing poverty. ECEC is a hot issue shared across developed and developing countries.  As global attitudes toward ECEC have changed, the new ECEC system and curriculum in England has also adapted, including the re-organisation of the governmental division for ECEC in order to integrate the jurisdiction of ECEC, introducing a national curriculum with detailed achievement goals, and monitoring systems for all the ECEC settings.  The national curriculum on ECEC in England, Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), stresses the importance of care in terms of children’s well-being as well as promotion of literacy, and increasingly such safeguard and welfare requirements have been extended through the revisions of them.  ECEC in England is categorised as‘ school readiness’ tradition by the OECD Report. Such a slogan has given the ECEC legitimacy from both points of view: economic growth and humanitarian support, importance in developed and developing countries, and impact of poverty and universal security. However, there are many who oppose the view of school readiness as the aim of ECEC. ‘School readiness’ can be recognised as‘ deductive rationality’ (Cowen 2014). The fundamental question is thus posed - how do we recognise childhood, as a preparation period for being an adult or a meaningful period in and of itself?
  • 谷川 至孝
    教育行財政研究
    2019年 46 巻 55-58
    発行日: 2019/03/31
    公開日: 2019/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
  • ― PSHEとヘルシースクール政策の分析を通じて ―
    青木 研作, 石黒 万里子
    日英教育研究フォーラム
    2018年 22 巻 047-062
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/09/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    By World Health Organization (WHO) ’s initiatives, many countries have been working on health promotion in schools since the late 1980s. According to the WHO, Health Promoting Schools stem from the idea of healthy settings. A healthy setting refers to“the place or social context in which people engage in daily activities in which environmental, organizational, and personal factors interact to affect health and wellbeing.” In other words, this idea tries to see settings, where people engage in activities, as a place where health-related problems are created and resolved. The idea of using settings as a base to tackle health promotion stems from a strategy from the 1980s,“Health for All,” and more specifically, it was designed more clearly in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Currently, health promotion initiatives are implemented in settings such as schools, workplace, hospitals, villages and cities.  In the compulsory education stage in England there is a subject called PSHE (Personal, Social, Health and Economic education). This subject is expected to play a central role in health education. Also, there are requirements that a variety of subjects, such as science, physical education and design and technology, teach knowledge and skills related to health. Health and safety prescriptions have occurred in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), with such descriptions increasing in recent years. Regardless of the fact that heavy emphasis has been placed on PSHE as a subject closely involved in better lifestyles for children, to date, it has been a non-statutory subject. As a result, individual schools decide how to teach PSHE, and quality has also been found to vary, with a 2013 survey by Ofsted finding 40% of schools needing improvement. With increasing voices calling for a PSHE requirement in all schools, as it brings a certain level of quality, the current Conservative government announced that PSHE would become a statutory subject in 2019. As seen in the current positioning of PSHE, while the government has endorsed health education in England, efforts toward this end have been decided by each school. However, there are policies to promote schools undertaking ambitious efforts for health education. Among them is the healthy schools approach. A healthy school is one with evidence that it is undertaking schoolwide efforts concerning the four central themes of PSHE, healthy food, physical activity and emotional health and well-being. The Labour Government at the time built an environment enabling schools to make aspiring health education efforts through nationwide development of a healthy school’s certification program for these schools. Although this wasn’t adopted under subsequent coalition and Conservative Governments, in some cases, local authorities use healthy school policies to continue to support healthy lifestyles among children in their respective regions. For example, in the Healthy Schools London policy, health education in schools develops through cooperation with local authority and a variety of groups promoting health. A wide variety of health education is taught in schools. These cases indicate that schools wisely using local resources can develop effective and original health education.
  • 藤井 穂高
    教育学研究
    2014年 81 巻 4 号 484-495
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2015/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー
     本論では、イギリスにおける近年の改革動向とそれをめぐる議論を素材として、就学前施設と小学校を含む教育期間の区切り方の可能性、その根拠と課題を検討することを目的とした。検討の結果、5歳児就学を支持する説得的な理論的根拠はなく、イギリス(イングランド)の上から下への改革と、ウェールズの下から上への改革は、ベクトルは反対ではあるが、同じ課題、すなわち、「小学校」という枠の中で、いかに幼児教育の原則を実現するか、という課題を内包していることを明らかにした。
  • 所 道彦
    社会政策学会誌
    2005年 14 巻 52-74
    発行日: 2005/09/30
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper will focus on the recent development of Japanese family policies in a comparative perspective. The rapid fertility decline has led to new policy initiatives for families and children. Childcare services have expanded since the 1990s, while the reconciliation of work and family life has been addressed by these new policies. On the other hand, direct economic support of families with children has not improved and the level of support is still inadequate. A comparative analysis of the policy package including cash benefits, tax allowances, childcare services and other subsidies, which support a family with the costs of rearing children, suggests that Japanese packages were less generous than most other industrialized countries in 2001. It is also important to note that this situation has remained unchanged during the last five years, despite the importance of supporting families that has been repeatedly emphasized in domestic politics. This is in sharp contrast with policy developments in Britain, where the support packages since 1997 under the Labour government have been improving in order to tackle child poverty. The new initiatives of British family policies include the introduction of tax benefits and increasing childcare cost tax deductions. There are some arguments for increasing the level of cash benefits to halt the fertility decline in Japan. In fact, child-related tax benefits are limited and less generous in terms of amount and provisions compared with other countries, and it is important to extend benefits and reduce the costs of rearing children. However, economic support of families should not be considered in the context of demographic policy. Japanese family policies need to pay more attention to poverty among children, particularly the issue of single-parent families, which is also spreading as a result of the rising divorce rate. As the hardships of single-mother families can become more evident in a country with a social system based on a male-breadwinner family model, this will be a major issue for Japanese social policy. The main aim of future family policies should be supporting children, not increasing their number. It is necessary for us to respond to the wide range of issues brought by family changes, which are well beyond the scope of the fertility crisis.
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