De nombreux critiques, à commencer par Hippolyte Taine, ont noté la composition solide de Thérèse Raquin (1867) d’Émile Zola. C’est un des traits qui distinguent ce texte de son premier roman La Confession de Claude (1865). Que signifie ce changement dans l’écriture de l’auteur? La question est d’ autant plus importante que, comme le dit Dezalay, Thérèse Raquin marque « le tournant décisif » dans l’itinéraire esthétique et idéologique de Zola.
Le présent article tente de relire ce roman à l’aune de sa théorie picturale. Si dans ses écrits sur la littérature Zola avance l’idée d’une mimésis méthodique, ses critiques d’art théorisent plutôt la recomposition de ce que l’artiste observe. Nous commençons par analyser son choix théorique en explorant divers discours des années 1860, période du post-réalisme. Le naturalisme en faveur duquel plaide Zola découle de l’héritage du réalisme, mais tente aussi de résoudre le manque de soin formel dont on l’accuse.
Cette perspective permet de revisiter l’écriture de Thérèse Raquin, trop souvent considérée comme l’expression d’une « aveugle perspicacité ». La théorie picturale de Zola qui privilège l’unité sémiotique du tableau, explique comment il construit l’espace du roman. La recomposition artiste n’est pas contradictoire avec l’observation réaliste. L’œuvre engendre un effet unifié par le fait qu’elle met « chaque détail en avant » comme Zola le dit lui-même dans la préface de la deuxième édition du roman. Avec Thérèse Raquin, Zola semble vouloir établir une alliance entre deux exigences qui, apparemment, s’excluent.
The present paper examines the production of Prunella as Harley Granville Barker's first step toward his later period of stylization.
At the end of the 19th century, the experimental theatre movement of anti-realism emerged in Europe, but it was right before the First World War that the similar movement, that is, Granville Barker's Shakespeare productions at Savoy Theatre, was seen in England. Granville Barker's productions not only made a turning point of the production history of Shakespeare, but also showed an alternative way of theatre production to the thriving realism of English theatre. The production of Prunella, therefore, could be seen as Graville Barker's unnoticed attempt toward the later stylized productions of Shakespeare.
Between 1871-81, the years of William D. Howells' editorship, The Atlantic Monthly published monthly reviews of French books and occasional papers on French writers. In the United States, the appreciation of French literature had been slow, because Americans had condemned French literature as corrupt. But Howells and The Atlantic Monthly dared to pay attention to the latest trend in French literature.
This unusual editorial attention to French literature was due to two circumstances. First, tms period of the Gilded Age, which was characterized by geographical and psychological dislocation, demanded the “otherness” of foreign cultures. Second, a young trio, including Howells as editor, Henry James as advisor and critic, and Thomas Perry as prolific reviewer, all of whom had lived in Europe and been aspirants for American fiction and students of the new mode of Realism, recognized the importance of the role they would play in the unexplored field of American criticism.
The Atlantic Monthly s reviews reflected the contemporary trend of French literature immediately and precisely as a mirror; they denied the obstinate eloquence of Romanticism and appreciated Realism, except for Zola. Though they could not overturn the conservative judgment of people in Boston, theirsteady attention to French writers contributed to the revaluation of French literature at the end of the nineteenth century. We can therefore consider their activities to represent an important turning point in the reception of French literature in the United States.
In the 1920s, many works of Japanese literature, along with the knowledge of Japanese literary movements, were introduced into China by writers who had studied in Japan. Among these movements was Naturalism, which was introduced into China in the early 1920s. This paper examines the characteristics and significance of Naturalism in modern Chinese literature by analyzing the influence of Japanese Naturalism on Chinese literature.
In 1920 Mao Dun—who played a leading role in the Chinese Naturalism movement in 1922—insisted that Chinese literature should promote Neo-Romanticism because the latter is the ideal of contemporary European literature. However, later on, in 1921, he shifted his focus to Naturalism. On examining the magazines for which Mao Dun worked, we come across a number of articles on Japanese Naturalism that were written by critics who had studied in Japan. We also find Japanese essays translated into Chinese, which regarded Naturalism as a great divide in modern literary history. From this, it is possible to determine that several Chinese naturalists, including Mao Dun, were influenced by Japanese Naturalism.
Chinese Naturalism does not appear to be as active a movement as Japanese Naturalism. However, the process by which literature was being defined and established will be elucidated on an examination of the rise and fall of the movement of Naturalism.