戦後の公立学校では, 法的に「外国人」とされた在日朝鮮人の二世・三世に対し, どのような「問題」が見出されてきたのだろうか. 在日朝鮮人教育の運動・言説は, 1970年代以降全国的な発展を見せるが, そこでは「民族」としての人間形成を剝奪されているとされた児童生徒の意識やありようの「問題」 (教師が想定するところの民族性や民族的自覚の欠如) に専ら関心が注がれてきた. こうした教育言説をその起源へ遡ると, 1960年代までの日教組全国教研集会 (教研) での議論がその原型となっている.
1950年代後半から60年代の教研では, 在日朝鮮人教育への視角に大きな変容が生じた. その背景には帰国運動など一連の日朝友好運動と日本民族・国民教育運動の政治が存在していた. この時期の教育論には, 親や子どもの声に耳を傾け, 学校・地域での疎外, 進路差別, 貧困などの逆境に配慮し, その社会環境を問題化する教育保障の立場と, 学校外の政治運動が要請する課題と連動した, 民族・国民としての主体形成の欠落を問題化する立場が存在していた. 当初両者は並存関係にあったが, 上記の政治の影響下で60年代初頭には後者が圧倒的に優勢となった. その結果, 「日本人教師」が最も重視すべきは「同化」の問題とされ, 「日本人」とは本質的に異質な民族・国民としての意識・内実の “回復” を中核的な課題とする在日朝鮮人教育言説が成立した.
How do we apply history in politics? The purpose of this paper is to analyze how recognition in civil society, such as perception of history, plays a role in public opinion and parliamentary government. To clarify this research question, incorporating a political concept into the analysis, this paper focused on roles of the General Association of Korean Residents (Chongryon) and the North Korean Lobby and looked into the backgrounds in the repatriation massively expanded between 1959 and 1961.
Before repatriation movements started, changes of organization structures were observed in the Chongryon and they began to speak in favor of North Korea. Simultaneously, the nature of the Niccho-Kyokai (日朝協会), which had been taking a politically neutral position, also began to change. They began to be a lobbying group in order to support the North Korean foreign diplomacy against Japan.
Applying a concept of “Pseudo Environment” defined by Walter Lippmann as a subjective, biased, and abridged mental image of the world, this section reflected on influences of the two key players over North Korean residents in Japan and Japanese public opinion. The analysis found a social trend with regards to repatriation issues being manipulated by a correlation of three components in the Pseudo Environment: (1) unified perception of history, (2) motherland-oriented nationalism, and (3) economic rationality.
Based on a data-mining method, the influences of the Pseudo Environment in the Diet were analyzed. The penetration of such an environment into civil society assisted the Diet members with the repatriation project being recognized ethically and humanitarianly. Therefore, intentions of the North Korean strategies against South Korea were insufficiently discussed.
The Pseudo Environment lost its effect as (1) demand of mobilization was weakened, (2) activities were diversified among the North Korean Lobby, and (3) information about North Korea was brought by returnees, and gaps were gradually closed between the Pseudo Environment and reality.
As a result of the Pseudo Environment effectively created by the two players among the North Korean residents in Japan and in the Japanese public opinion, one-sided recognition of North Korean strategies influenced civil society and parliamentary government to bring the mass repatriation out. This analysis also concludes that a nation is capable of controlling a social trend in other countries via intermediaries from outside of its country taking advantage of certain recognition. When we see international relations in East Asia, perception of history is an ongoing issue and has been more complex. This indicates that more case studies will be expected on how history has been utilized in politics.