The aim of this paper is to discuss the *Mahājñānābhiṣekadhāraṇīmaṇḍala in the Vajrapāṇyabhiṣekatantra. This tantra explains the three types of maṇḍala for abhiṣeka. Preceding studies have discussed the first and second maṇḍalas, but none have disscussed the third. For this reason, this paper focuses on the third maṇḍala.
The manuscript called the Bhūtaḍāmarabhaṭṭārakasādhana, a maṇḍalavidhi based on the Bhūtaḍāmaratantra, consists of two texts: the first half is a sādhana manual of Bhūtaḍāmalamaṇḍala named Bhūtaḍāmarabhaṭṭārakasādhana, the second half is an abhiṣekavidhi named Bhūtaḍāmaramaṇḍalopayika. The details of the author, Subhūtipālita, are unknown, but in some of Bu ston rin chen grub’s works, Subhūtipālita is mentioned as a teacher or disciple of Ānandagarbha, an expert in the Yogatantras. Interestingly, there are many similarities between the Bhūtaḍāmaramaṇḍalopayika and an abhiṣekavidhi in the Sarvavajrodayā by Ānandagarbha. Therefore, it seems that there was a close relationship between these two scholar-monks. This paper introduces the sources of the Bhūtaḍāmarabhaṭṭārakasādhana and compares the synopses of the Bhūtaḍāmaramaṇḍalopayika and the Sarvavajrodayā to show that in structure they mostly correspond. However, we can find some differences in the details. This paper also points out that these differences are found in other maṇḍalavidhi texts such as Dīpaṅkarabhadra’s Guhyasamājamaṇḍalavidhi.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the *Vajrābhiṣekamaṇḍala in the Vajrapāṇyabhiṣekatantra (VPA). This tantra explains the three types of maṇḍala for abhiṣeka. Preceding studies have discussed the first maṇḍala, but none have discussed the second and the third. For this reason, this paper focuses on the second maṇḍala. This maṇḍala is in the shape of a circle, and it has a double structure, namely interior and exterior. A vajra and a dharmacakra are drawn in the center of the maṇḍala, but the meaning of these symbols is unclear. As for the inside of the maṇḍala, a cintāmaṇi is drawn in the east and symbolizes Samantabhadra. A dharmaśaṅkha, a vajra, and a padma are drawn in the north, which symbolize Avalokiteśvara. A vāyumaṇḍala and a vajra are drawn in the south and symbolize Vajrapāṇi. An utpala is drawn in the west and symbolizes Mañjuśrī. A sword is drawn in the southwest, but its meaning is unclear. Trailokyavijaya and Krodhacandratilaka are drawn on both side of the gates. As for the outside, Īśvara, Indra, Yama, and Catvāro mahārājānaḥ are drawn in the east, north, south, and west, respectively. Durdharṣa? and Abhimukha? are drawn on both side of the gates, and four guards are drawn in the four directions of the maṇḍala.