久保 陽 (1)
北村 優季 (1)
松下 義弘 (1)
藤田 修 (1)
豊田 武 (1)
1948 年 (1)
1961 年 (1)
1985 年 (1)
2016 年 (1)
平安京の支配機構 : 在家支配を中心に
1985年 94 巻 1 号 1-37,128-127
This essay is an investigation into the structure of governance for the Heian Capital during the tenth and eleventh centuries. Previous research on the Heian Capital as the classic model for both ancient and medieval cities in Japan has included work on its physical plan, research into the life of its residents through such sources as Konjaku Monogatari-shu 今昔物語集, and analyses of a social economic historical nature. It would seem therefore that the such practical problems as how the residents dispersed over this metropolitan space were taxed and controlled would have been already sufficiently dealt with ; however, such it not the case. It is in this spirit that the present essay will try to deal with the historical changes which took place in the urban residents' unit of control called Kyoko 京戸, a phenomenon of the eighth and ninth centuries relatively well covered by the ritsu-ryo 律令 codes, as the Heian Capital entered the tenth century. While part one of the essay covers the spheres of governance directly under various officials, part two goes into detail concerning areas called ho 保, fundamental administrative capital units which lay under the governmental control exercised by either the Sayukyoshiki 左右京職 or the later Kebiishi 検非違使 policing agencies. Part two in particular focuses on the following three points : 1)the nature of the central figures involved in ho administration namely ho no osa 保長 and ho no tone 保刀禰 ; 2) the residents of the ho, who were organized as zaike 在家 ; and 3)the residential units (ie 家) of capital nobles, which were to a certain degree independent of the control exercised by the Sayukyo-shiki and Kebiishi agencies. It should be noted that while secondary source materials such as Buddhist tale collections were utilized, the author was always careful to historically verify such sources with more reliable documentary materials.
1948年 15 巻 1 号 67-99
2016年 72 巻 4 号 P-244-P-253
藤田 修, 久保 陽
1961年 33 巻 1 号 3-12
The process of solidification and graphite formation at a given slow rate of cooling was investigated on the commercial hypo-eutectic, inoculated cast irons by calcium-silicon and not inoculated ones. The cooling curves were determined and samples quenched at various stages during solidification were examined microscopically. The results obtained are as follows.
(1) Addition of calcium-silicon showed a slight tendency to form the more uniform distribution of primary anstnite particles.
(2) On the cooling curves, inoculated irons show the less degree of undercoolinga nd more rapid recalescence than uninoculated irons. That is to say, inoculation increase the rate of occurence and growth of eutectic cells.
(3) Solicenters centers of eutectic cells are initiated in narrow parts between primary austenite particles. In the corresponding parts of inoculated irons quenched from the temperature approximately 40°C higher than entectic arrest, a few mesh graphite-austenite eutectic spots, which were apparently considered to be formed by short time during quench, were recognized.
(4) Number of eutectic cells are increased by inoculation. The occurence of eutectic cells are confined in the early stage of eutectic reaction. The dominating reaction in middle and later stage of eutectic reaction is the growth of eutectic cells previously appeared.
(5) Inoculation by calcium-silicon changes the mode of development of eutectic cell and graphite remarkably. In inoculated irons quenched from early and middle stages of eutectic reaction, graphite flakes of random orientation were recognized along the central ribs of willow-leaf type anstenite. In the corresponding specimens of uninoculated irons, the willow-leaf anstenites were very few and mossy graphite or fine undercooled graphite were recognized.
(6) Specimens cooled to room temperature in furnace showed uniform distribution of flaky graphite (type A) in inoculated irons and undercooled graphite (type D and E) in uninoculated irons.
(7) The microscopic examination under plane-polarized light showed that calcium-silicon inoculation decreased the optical anisotropy of sulphide in clusions and changed the elongated type of manganese sulphide to fine compact type. Furthermore, microscopic examination of sulphur prints showed that degree of sulphide segregation to the boundary of eutectic cell was decreased by inoculation. These phenomena were attibuted to decrease of ferrous sulphite and some oxide in sulphide inclusions by inoculation from the consideration on the several diagrams of MnS-FeS etc.