Malaysia is a common law country, and as such the decisions of its courts have a binding and law-making force. This means that the Malaysian judiciary is highly influential in setting the tenor of governance. In this article I examine and analyze some key decisions that had an influence on divisiveness and dissent in the country. I point out that the courts have been poor in ensuring that the legal system protects the nation from divisive elements, and the legal system does not do enough to guarantee the fundamental rights and democratic principles that were envisioned by the founding fathers for the citizenry. The article closes with an attempt to understand why this is the case.
Aim: This paper examines the humanitarian crisis in Aleppo, Syria, during its civil war in 2016.
Methods: Historical methodology was used to analyze primary sources such as records from aid agencies and aid workers and secondary sources on humanitarianism and “new wars.”
Results: Many United Nations and international non-government organizational missions have been involved in Syria. The White Helmets and Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), in particular, illustrate the frustration and challenges that responders to the “new wars” experience.
Conclusion: As nurses work in politically charged environments such as war, they face new challenges that demand new responses. We call for nurses to engage in the needed dialogue over the use of force that intersects with humanitarian work.
Despite countless international efforts for the peaceful resolution of armed conflicts, why are so many conflicts still observed today? To find an answer to this question, the author seeks to test the following hypothesis; it is difficult to find the root causes of armed conflicts because peace and conflict studies have not paid much attention to research on human emotions. By reviewing previous studies, this hypothesis has been proven true for the following reasons. Firstly, the so-called “rational model” in conflict studies (including the areas of International Law, International Relations and International Politics) does not reflect peoples' felt emotions such as hatred and fear. Secondly, the present international system is not designed to handle politically motivated, aggressive emotions properly. As a conclusion, this essay notes that a pro-social emotion such as empathy does not necessarily prevent conflicts. Interdisciplinary research efforts concerning armed conflicts are needed so that the “vulnerable human model” which indicates a person who can easily switch from victim to aggressor or vice versa will replace the “rational model” in the future research.