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全文: "BOYS AND MEN"
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  • Yoshimitsu Inoue, Tomoko Kuwahara, Tsutomu Araki
    Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY and Applied Human Science
    2004年 23 巻 6 号 289-294
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2004/12/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper addresses the ways in which heat loss effector functions change with maturation and aging, using data obtained in our laboratory. Prepubertal children have an underdeveloped sweat function compared with young adults; this is compensated by a greater surface area-to-mass ratio and relatively greater heat loss from cutaneous vasodilation on the head and trunk when the air temperature is lower than the skin temperature. As the heat dissipation depends greatly on the evaporation of sweat, the core temperature of prepubertal children is greater than that of young adults owing to the underdevelopment of sweating. In the elderly the heat loss effector function decreases with aging. The decrease may first involve cutaneous vasodilation, then sweat output per gland, and finally active sweat gland density; and it may proceed from the lower limbs to the back of the upper body, the front of the upper body, then the upper limbs and finally to the head.
  • NOBUYOSHI OKA
    時事英語学研究
    1963年 2 巻 2 号 12-17
    発行日: 1963/09/10
    公開日: 2012/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    There are considerably many noteworthy turns of expression in English which it is important for us Japanese to understand.
    There are many causes in a change of speech habits. Our attitude should be towards the reliability of an available collection of linguistic facts, and of a careful investigation of it.
    Now I'm going to explain them by the following examples.
  • Katsuo Fujiwara, Takeo Kiyota, Aida Mammadova, Chie Yaguchi
    Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    2011年 30 巻 5 号 187-194
    発行日: 2011/09/30
    公開日: 2011/10/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated age-related changes and sex differences in adaptability of anticipatory postural control in children. Subjects comprised 449 children (4–12 years old) and 109 young adults (18–29 years old). Subjects stood with eyes closed on a force-platform fixed to a floor oscillator. We conducted five trials of 1-minute oscillation (0.5 Hz frequency, 2.5 cm amplitude) in the anteroposterior direction. Postural steadiness was quantified as the mean speed of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPy). In young adults, CoPy speed decreased rapidly until the third trial for both sexes. Adaptability was evaluated by changes in steadiness. The adaptability of children was categorized as “good,” “moderate,” and “poor,” compared with a standard variation of the mean CoPy speed regression line between the first and fifth trials in young adults. Results were as follows: (1) anticipatory postural control adaptability starts to develop from age 6 in boys and 5 in girls, and greatly improves at age 7–8 in boys and 6 in girls; (2) the adaptability of children at age 11–12 (74% of boys and 63% of girls were categorized as “good”) has not yet reached the same level as for young adults; (3) the adaptability at age 11–12 for girls is temporarily disturbed due to early puberty.
  • Yoshimitsu Inoue, Tomoko Ichinose-Kuwahara, Syunichi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Ueda, Hideshi Yasumatsu, Narihiko Kondo, Tsutomu Araki
    Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    2009年 28 巻 3 号 137-144
    発行日: 2009/05/31
    公開日: 2009/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses of prepubertal children to heat stress were examined. Seven prepubertal boys (9–11 years old) and 9 young men (20–24 years old) were seated wearing only swimming trunks while the air temperature (Ta) was linearly increased from 28°C to 40°C over 50 min and then maintained at 40°C for an additional 10 min. Skin temperature, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), and local sweating rate (msw) were measured at multiple sites on the body. The boys had a significantly greater mean surface area-to-mass ratio compared with the young men. The rectal temperature did not change in either group with increasing Ta, although it was significantly higher in the boys. During the first half of the exposure period, when Ta was less than the mean skin temperature (Tsk), the boys had significantly higher CVC on the chest and significantly lower msw on the chest and thigh as compared with the young men. During the latter half of the exposure, when heat stress was increased as Ta exceeded Tsk, the boys had significantly higher Tsk, greater CVC on the chest and finger, greater rate of increase in the CVC on the forehead and finger, lower msw on the chest and thigh, greater increase in heart rate, and higher thermal sensation. The mean body temperature at the onset of sweating was significantly greater in the boys than in the men. These results suggest that, compared with young men, prepubertal boys manifest greater physiological and perceptual strain under heat stress induced by Ta exceeding Tsk, which is most probably attributable to a combination of lower evaporative heat loss, as evidenced by lower msw, and greater heat gain owing to a larger surface area-to-mass ratio. The maturation-related differences in heat loss responses vary according to body site.
  • Shinichiro Inoue, Seishi Terada, Tadashi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Ujike, Yosuke Uchitomi
    Internal Medicine
    2012年 51 巻 11 号 1403-1406
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/06/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    We report the case of a 48-year-old man with adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) who developed dementia with subacute onset. He was abulic, indifferent to his surroundings, and without insight with regards to his own disease. An elevated plasma very long chain fatty acid level and a novel point mutation IVS3+2t>g in the ABCD1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of ALD. Diffusion-weighted MRI revealed a high intensity area in the white matter of the frontal lobes. Severe brain hypoperfusion in the frontal lobes was revealed. We believe that this is a rare case of adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy with predominant frontal lobe dysfunction.
  • 三村 寛一, 前田 如矢
    The Annals of physiological anthropology
    1989年 8 巻 3 号 143-150
    発行日: 1989/07/01
    公開日: 2008/02/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to investigate some characteristics of physical fitness in children, we measured the heart rate of 1069 kindergarten children (aged 4-6years) and 20 adults during treadmill running. After analyzing the data we obtained the following results : heart rate before, during, and after the running tended to diminish with the increase in age of the subjects in both men/boys and women/girls. The relationship of the heart rates before running and the maximum heart rates during in 25m run, standing long jump, and softball throw, showed a significant level of 5-0.1% in both boys/men and girls/women. The heart rates of children before, during and after running were higher than those of adults. The rate of increase in heart rate was higher in adults, while more raped recovery of heart rate was observed in children, when compared to adults.
  • Magdy Youssef SHAMY, Osama El-Sayed SOLIMAN, Hassan Ahmed OSMAN, Ragaa Mohammed EL-GAZZAR
    Industrial Health
    1996年 34 巻 3 号 267-277
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2007/03/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study was carried out for screening some biochemical changes due to occupational exposure to contraceptive drugs. It included 18 male workers and 22 female workers involved in the manufacture of contraceptive pills and 34 female workers manufacturing contraceptive ampoules. The levels of some sex hormones and gonadotropins were evaluated. Some parameters of blood picture, blood coagulation, liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and trace elements metabolism were assessed. Results were compared with those of a control group composed of 19 males and 27 females. Increased levels of estrogen among exposed workers was the main finding. It has been attributed to liver rather than pituitary dysfunction. A less atherogenic lipid profile has also been found. Referral to preventive measures has been recommended.
  • Kumiko YAGI
    日本中東学会年報
    2006年 22 巻 1 号 115-121
    発行日: 2006/08/08
    公開日: 2018/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Toshifumi Fujita, Manabu Iwata, Michitaka Fukuda
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2011年 23 巻 2 号 259-263
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/06/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish an optimal load setting method for a 9-second modified-Wingate Anaerobic Test (m-WAnT) and to examine the reliability and validity of the test. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients and 18 of them were examined as to the test's validity. [Methods] The m-WAnT was performed twice on two different days to calculate the Mean Power (MP). In order to derive an optimal load setting expression, multiple regression analysis was performed using the optimal load (a value roughly 10% higher than the torque value achieved at the time-point of 6 seconds) as the dependent variable and 6 items as the independent variables. The Five-Repetition Sit-to-Stand Test (FRSST) and Maximum Walking Speed (MWS) were measured and their correlations with were examined the MP. [Results] The ICC (1,1) of the MP of the first and second values of MP was 0.982 (95% CI, 0.961-0.991). The result of multiple regression analysis showed that the unaffected side and affected side LEPT were significantly related and the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.812. MP significantly correlated with FRSST and MWS of the 18 subjects. [Conclusion] This study confirmed the reliability and validity of m-WAnT and derived the optimal load setting equation as well.
  • Saya Watanabe, Junya Aizawa, Manabu Shimoda, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Tomomasa Nakamura, Atushi Okawa, Kazuyoshi Yagishita
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2016年 28 巻 12 号 3371-3375
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/12/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    [Purpose] Fatigue may be an important contributing factor to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled lower limb fatigue, induced by a short-term, high-intensity exercise protocol, on the profile of the ground reaction force during landings from single-leg anterior drop-jumps. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy males, 18 to 24 years old, performed single-leg anterior drop-jumps, from a 20 cm height, under two conditions, ‘fatigue’ and ‘non-fatigue’. Short-term fatigue was induced by high-intensity interval cycling on an ergometer. Effects of fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were evaluated by paired t-test. [Results] Fatigue shortened the time-to-peak duration of the vertical ground reaction force by 10% (non-fatigue, 44.0 ± 16.8 ms; fatigue, 39.6 ± 15.8 ms). Fatigue also yielded a 3.6% lowering in peak vertical ground reaction force and 9.4% increase in loading rate, although these effects were not significant. [Conclusion] The effects of fatigue in reducing time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps may increase the risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in males.

  • Małgorzata Wójcik, Idzi Siatkowski
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2015年 27 巻 4 号 1103-1106
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.24±0.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.14±0.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.01±0.84, mean of years of learning ballet 4.64±1.24; 64 students (high school) mean age 17.01±0.77, mean of years of learning ballet 7.47±1.54. Numeric rating scale was used to determine spine pain. [Results] Feelings of pain were analyzed on the basis of “now” and “before” between levels education by using point statistics and statistical tests to compare groups. “Now” exhibited weaker back pain feelings than “before” at all the education levels. There were statistically significant differences in pain feeling for “before” (at any time of learning) and “now” (the day of survey). [Conclusion] All patients reported pain “before” and “now” in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. At all levels of education there were statistically significant differences in feelings of pain between “before” and “now”.
  • 奥田 豊子, 梶原 苗美, 伊達 ちぐさ, 杉本 恭子, 力丸 徹, 藤田 美明, 小石 秀夫
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
    1981年 27 巻 4 号 319-331
    発行日: 1981年
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    A nutritional survey was held in August, 1978, at Kalugaluvi (altitude: 1, 500m) near Lufa, which is 60km from Goroka, in the Eastern Highland Province of Papua New Guinea. Anthropometric measurements were carried out on 55 males and 37 females aged from 7 to 64 years. Whereas the physiques of the children looked as good as those of Japanese of a comparable age, the adult men were shorter than Japanese males, but body weight and chest girth were similar. The skinfold thickness was less than that of the Japanese. From the data collected, it was shown that the physique of the Highlanders was more muscular than that of the Japanese.
    The food intakes and energy balances of 18 healthy men (20-40 years old) were measured over 2 or 3 consecutive days. The average consumption of sweet potatoes, the staple food, was 956±305g per day. The average consumption of taro and yam was 93±124g/day and 36±99g/day, respectively. Various green leaves, sugar canes, corn, bananas and other foods (i.e., rice and tinned fish) purchased from trade stores were sometimes eaten. The mean daily energy intake was 2, 390±540 kcal, which was about the same as the daily energy expenditure. The daily protein intake was 35.2±10.7g. These results are probably exceptionally high, because the survey was unfortunately held during the yearly festival season of the village when the people often ate fatty pork.
    Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that the growth of children and the physique of adults are normal in spite of the extremely low intake of protein.
  • Yusuke Kubo, Yuusuke Nishida
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2013年 25 巻 11 号 1363-1366
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/12/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the validity of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in assessment of the ability of skeletal muscles to utilize oxygen. [Subjects] We evaluated 12 young, healthy males. [Methods] The subjects completed a series of tests to determine their peak oxygen uptake, pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise, and the rate of decline in electromyographic (EMG) mean power frequency (MPF) (EMG MPFrate) during one continuous, fatiguing, isometric muscle action of the plantar flexors until exhaustion at approximately 60% maximum voluntary contraction. We discussed the relationships between pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and EMG MPFrate reflecting the ability of skeletal muscles to utilize oxygen and between pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and peak oxygen uptake reflecting the ability to deliver oxygen to skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics may be more highly correlated with EMG MPFrate than peak oxygen uptake. [Results] Pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (33.9 ± 5.9 s) were more significantly correlated with peak oxygen uptake (50.6 ± 5.5 mL/kg/min) than EMG MPFrate (−14.7 ± 8.7%/s). [Conclusion] Pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics is a noninvasive index that is mainly usable for evaluation of the ability of cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to skeletal muscles in healthy young adults with slower pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (>20 s).
  • Hoang Trong So
    パーリ学仏教文化学
    1999年 13 巻 1-12
    発行日: 1999/12/20
    公開日: 2018/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • James C. MCKUSICK
    イギリス・ロマン派研究
    2011年 35 巻 79-92
    発行日: 2011/03/20
    公開日: 2017/01/17
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山田 政美
    時事英語学研究
    1972年 1972 巻 11 号 35-48
    発行日: 1972/09/10
    公開日: 2012/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Eun-Yong JUNG, Beom-Jun LEE, Young Won YUN, Jong-Koo KANG, In-Jeoung BAEK, Min-Yon JURG, Yoon-Bok LEE, Heon-Soo SOHN, Jae-Yong LEE, Kang-Sung KIM, Wook-Joon YU, Jae Cheul DO, Young Cheul KIM, Sang-Yoon NAM
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2004年 66 巻 11 号 1347-1354
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2004/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    Genistein, a soybean-originated isoflavone, is widely consumed by humans for putative beneficial health effects but its estrogenic activity may adversely affect the development of male reproductive system. Twenty one-day-old ICR mice weaned from dams fed with a soybean-based diet throughout gestation and lactation were exposed by gavage to genistein (2.5 mg/kg b.w./day) or 17β-estradiol (7.5 μg/kg b.w./day) for five weeks. Corn oil was used as a negative control. The animals were fed with a casein-based AIN-76A diet throughout the experimental periods. There were no significant differences in body and organ weights of mice among experimental groups. No significant differences in sperm counts and sperm motile characteristics were found between control and genistein groups. Treatment of 17β-estradiol caused a significant decrease in prostate weight and epididymal sperm counts compared to the control (p<0.05). The levels of phospholipid hydroxide glutathione peroxidase in the testis and prostate of mice exposed to genistein or 17β-estradiol were significantly higher than that of the control mice (p<0.05). 17β-estradiol treatment caused degeneration and apoptosis of germ cells in the testis, depletion and degeneration in the epididymal epithelium, and hyperplasia of mucosal fold region in the prostate of mice. Genistein treatment did not cause any lesion in the testis, epididymis, and prostate. These results suggest that dietary uptake of genistein during juvenile period may not affect male reproductive development and functions.
  • Beom-Jun LEE, Eun-Yong JUNG, Young-Won YUN, Jong-Koo KANG, In-Jeoung BAEK, Jung-Min YON, Yoon-Bok LEE, Heon-Soo SOHN, Jae-Yong LEE, Kang-Sung KIM, Sang-Yoon NAM
    Journal of Reproduction and Development
    2004年 50 巻 4 号 399-409
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2004/08/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Genistein, a soybean-originated isoflavone, is widely consumed by humans for putative beneficial health effects but its estrogenic activity may affect adversely the development of the male reproductive system. Twenty-one days old ICR mice weaned from dams fed with a casein-based AIN-76A diet during gestation and lactation were exposed to genistein (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 5 weeks. 17β-Estradiol (7.5 μg/kg/day) and corn oil were used for the positive and negative vehicle controls, respectively. The animals were fed the casein-based AIN-76A diet throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in body weights of mice between the genistein groups and the negative control group. No significant differences in relative reproductive organ weights were found among all experimental groups. Sperm counts in epididymis and testes were slightly decreased in the genistein-exposed groups compared with control group. Sperm motile characteristics in genistein-exposed groups were slightly higher than those of the control group. Levels of phospholipid hydroxide glutathione peroxidase mRNA in the testis, epididymis, and prostate of mice exposed to genistein or estradiol were significantly higher than those of the controls (P<0.05). Exposure to genistein caused hyperplasia of Leydig cells in the testis and a slight increase of interstitial fibroblasts in the epididymis, while estradiol treatment caused severe damage to the testis and epididymis. These results suggest that dietary uptake of genistein during the juvenile period may affect male reproductive development, resulting in a slight decrease in sperm count, but with an increase in sperm motion quality.
  • 体力科学
    1996年 45 巻 3 号 399-409
    発行日: 1996/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Satoshi Muraki, Akira Yasukouchi, Yasushi Sakaguchi, Shigemitsu Niihata
    Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    2011年 30 巻 4 号 153-160
    発行日: 2011/07/31
    公開日: 2011/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study quantified the interaction of electromyography (EMG) obtained from the vastus lateralis and metabolic energy cost of running (Cr; mL·[mass+load]−1·meter−1), an index of running economy, during submaximal treadmill running. Experiments were conducted with and without load on the back on a motor-driven treadmill on the downhill, level and uphill slopes. The obtained EMG was full-wave rectified and integrated (iEMG). The iEMG was divided into eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) phases with a foot sensor and a knee-joint goniometer. The ratio of ECC to CON (ECC/CON ratio) was regarded as the muscle elastic capacity during running on each slope. The Cr was determined as the ratio of the 2-min steady-state VO2 to the running speed. We found a significant decrease in the Cr when carrying the load at all slopes. The ECC/CON ratio was significantly higher in the load condition at the downhill and level slopes, but not at the uphill slope. A significant gradient difference was observed in the Cr (down<level<up) and ECC/CON ratio (down=level>uphill). Thus, an alteration of Cr by the gradient and load was almost consistent with that of the ECC/CON ratio. The ECC/CON ratio, but not the rotative torque (T) functioning around the center of body mass, significantly correlated with Cr (r=−0.41, p<0.05). These results indicated that the ECC/CON ratio, rather than T, contributed to one of the energy-saving mechanisms during running with load.
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