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全文: "Climate of Antarctica"
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  • Hiroshi Mizutani, Yuko Kabaya, Eitaro Wada
    GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL
    1985年 19 巻 6 号 323-327
    発行日: 1985/12/20
    公開日: 2008/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Ammonium fractions from a soil of a penguin rookery in Antarctica and from water of a pond in the rookery exhibit the highest 15N/14N ratios among biogenic nitrogen so far observed. Though soils of seabird rookeries appear, in general, to have high nitrogen isotope ratios, the still higher ratios make the penguin rookery stand out from other seabird rookeries. The observation suggests that ammonia volatilization is a cause of the 15N enrichment in the soil ammonium and that the Antarctic climate is particularly effective on 15N enrichment for ammonium remained in the soil and water.
  • 菅原 和夫, 町田 和彦, 島岡 章, 熊江 隆, 三島 昌夫
    日本生気象学会雑誌
    1982年 19 巻 1 号 59-69
    発行日: 1982/04/15
    公開日: 2010/10/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    1972年3月~1973年2月の1ケ年間, 越冬生活を送った第12次日本南極地域観測隊29名中13名いてBMR, FFAの季節変動は次の如く要約される。
    1.冬季7月のBMRの低下, 秋季2月のBMRの亢進を除いて他の月にはBMRの変動は認められない。
    2.冬季7月のBMRの低下は, 6月の暗夜の時期における生活が屋内生活が主となり, 身体活動の減少と室内気温18℃に曝露されていた為の影響と考えられる。
    3.秋季2月のBMRの亢進は, 越冬終了直前の為, 身体活動が最も激しくなり, かつ, 0℃~-10℃の外気温に曝露された為の亢進と考えられる。
    4.FFAの季節変動には著明な傾向を認めなかった。FFAの血中濃度は全期間を進じて平均816.7μEq/lと高いレベルにあった。
    5.FFAとBMRの関係は, FFAの高い者はBMRが亢進の傾向にあるが, 個人内でのFFAとBMRの変動は有意な負の相関々係をとっている。即ち, BMRが亢進するとFFAは減少する。
    6.BMRとRQの間には負の相関々係を示し, BMRが亢進するとRQは低下する。個人内での変動にも同様に負の相関々係がある。
    7.FFAとRQの間には負の相関々係を有し, FFAの高い者はRQが低いという関係にあるが, FFAとRQの個人内での変動では有意の相関々係は認められなかった。
  • 原 圭一郎
    エアロゾル研究
    2003年 18 巻 3 号 200-213
    発行日: 2003/09/20
    公開日: 2007/10/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • HYOUN SOO LIM, YOUNGYUN PARK, JIN-YONG LEE, HO IL YOON
    GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL
    2014年 48 巻 4 号 409-422
    発行日: 2014/07/20
    公開日: 2014/07/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    In Antarctica, the geochemical properties of meltwater and pondwater are very sensitive to global warming. Therefore, understanding the geochemical properties of the meltwater and pondwater is crucial to evaluating global climate change. This study was performed to examine the chemical and isotopic compositions of the meltwater and pondwater at the Barton and Weaver Peninsulas of King George Island, Antarctica, to understand their spatial variation and to evaluate factors controlling the surface water chemistry. The meltwater, pondwater and seawater were sampled at 50 sites of the Barton and Weaver Peninsulas during the period from 23 December 2010 to 5 January 2011. The chemical compositions of the meltwater and pondwater were mainly influenced by sea salt. Additionally, the influence of water-rock interaction was observed in some meltwater and pondwater. The LREE/HREE ratios of some of the pondwater in the Barton Peninsula showed a decreasing trend by influence of water-rock interaction. The influences of sea salt and water-rock interaction were more dominant at the Barton Peninsula than the Weaver Peninsula. The δ18O and δD of the meltwater and pondwater showed a wide range. Little evaporation losses were observed at the Barton Peninsula but evaporation losses did not occurred at the Weaver Peninsula.
  • 一柳 錦平, 沼口 敦, 加藤 喜久雄
    日本水文科学会誌
    2002年 32 巻 3 号 71-81
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2019/01/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    For reconstructing past climate, an empirical linear relationship between air temperature and isotopic compositions of ice core has been used as a paleothermometer. However, the relationship between air temperature and stable isotope data is affected by the several factors other than temperature. Based on the result of Ichiyanagi et al. (2002), we examine the interannual variation of stable isotopes in precipitation at Argentine Island, Antarctica. The causes for the interannual variation of stable isotopes in Antarctic precipitation are discussed in the relation with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using large-scale atmospheric data. Anomalies of surface air temperature and δ18O of precipitation in the Antarctic Peninsula are negatively correlated with ENSO. The low (high) anomaly of δ18O is associated with southerly (northerly) and cold (warm) anomalies, which is considered to appear as a response to the ENSO teleconnection. Results of the water budget analysis considering the origin of water vapor, relative contribution and remaining ratio of moisture flux are very important for determining the observed δ18O in precipitation.

  • 木村 茂雄, 石沢 賢二, 高永 敏行, 市川 恵通, 宗像 弘祐
    日本風工学会誌
    1994年 1994 巻 58 号 32-42
    発行日: 1994/01/31
    公開日: 2010/09/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to provide the useful information for designing a wind turbine system in the area of cold Katabatic climate in Antarctica, analyzed were the wind data acquired at the 10m level during the course of operation for five years from 1987 to 1991 by Japan Meteorological Agency and National Institute of Polar Research, and measured continuously for the certain periods of hours in 1991 by the anemometer on top of the 6m tower next to the small wind turbine system at Asuka Observation Camp in Antarctica. Several findings were drawn based on the analysis of data. The duration time of the wind velocity specifically more than 10m/s in the direction of ESE lasted extremely long throughout a year. Gust factors kept almost constant in the range over the velocity of 8m/s. Power spectra have a peak value at 0.052Hz and were well approximated by the equation expressed under the condition of the neutral stratification.
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