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全文: "Groupthink"
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  • 松井 亮太
    組織学会大会論文集
    2017年 6 巻 2 号 14-19
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/23
    ジャーナル フリー

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered an extremely severe nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Before the accident, several experts and researchers had repeatedly pointed out a high possibility that tsunami would reach beyond the level assumed by TEPCO, as well as a possibility that such level of tsunami might cause severe accidents. However, TEPCO and the regulatory body (NISA) overlooked these warnings and did not take any preventive measure against tsunami. Consequently, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was incapable of withstanding the tsunami that hit on the day. Due to these facts, the accident is regarded as a man-made disaster. Even today, more than 6 years after the accident, it has not been revealed why they underestimated the risk of tsunami and couldn't prevent the accident. This article suggests that this question can be partially answered by applying “groupthink” model which was developed by Irving Janis. This study analyzes the descriptions of two official reports on the Fukushima accident by Japanese government and National Diet. As the result, all antecedent conditions, six symptoms of groupthink and six symptoms of defective decision making are found in the accident reports. This study also suggests that an additional antecedent condition "existences of obvious and obscure risks" and a symptom of groupthink "procrastination of problem solving" could be included in the groupthink model.

  • 水山 元, 小松 俊之
    精密工学会誌
    2015年 81 巻 8 号 781-787
    発行日: 2015/08/05
    公開日: 2015/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    A group decision making process is often adopted for creating, comparing and prioritizing multiple alternative solutions to a problem. This paper proposes a semi-structured discussion approach involving Delphi type interaction for properly managing such a group decision making process. The approach divides a whole discussion process into several rounds, and, at the beginning of each round, the members' overall evaluation scores on the solutions at the time are aggregated and their distribution is visually feedback to each member. This makes it apparent how differently minorities evaluate the solutions. As a result, the focus of discussion is spontaneously drawn to, for example, background information of the difference. This can prevent the group from falling into groupthink and lead to a higher quality decision integrating the intellectual contributions of not only majorities but also minorities. Further, laboratory experiments are conducted to confirm whether the proposed discussion approach works as expected.
  • Pablo Goldschmidt
    Tropical Medicine and Health
    2015年 43 巻 2 号 141-148
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
    Organizations working for the elimination of Chlamydia-triggered blindness (trachoma) follow the WHO SAFE strategy (surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, face washing and environmental changes) with the aim to achieve a minimum of 80% of children with clean faces in endemic communities, mass treatment covering the whole district with trachoma rates of 10% or more and surveillance plans. Trachoma recurrence that is common after implementing the SAFE strategy 3, 5 or even 7 times evidence that the cognitive processes requiring assimilation and integration of knowledge did not register with parents, caretakers and children. Moreover, repeated awareness campaigns to improve hygiene did not systematically produce irreversible changes of behavior in neglected populations. In view of this evidence, the rational behind mass drug administration as the mainstay of preventable blindness elimination demands a wider scope than simple mathematical models. The reluctance to see disappointing outcomes that leads to repeated interventions may suggest from a sociologic point of view that the strategies are products of those evaluating the activities of those who fund them and vice versa. A similar articulation emerges for reciprocal interactions between researchers and those judging the pertinence and quality of their work. So far, the lack of autocritic elimination strategy approaches may expose inbred circles that did not properly grasp the fact that antibiotics, trichiasis surgery and education limited to improvement of hygiene are inefficient if not associated with long-term basic educational actions in schools.
  • 小林 佐知子
    学校音楽教育研究
    2015年 19 巻 27-38
    発行日: 2015/03/31
    公開日: 2017/04/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this study is to clarify the conditions that cause the formation of groupthink in music classes. First, we went over documentation about groupthink and sorted the stated concepts of groupthink to derive the conditions that cause the formation of groupthink. Then, we designed a class incorporating those derived conditions, implemented and analyzed the class to see whether or not groupthink had been formed, and, if so, how it had been formed. Finally, we considered the conditions that result in the formation of groupthink based on analysis. We derived the following two items as conditions for the formation of groupthink: 1. The mutual relation of an issue each individual has will form a common issue. 2. There are occasions in which each individual can express by words and/or deeds what he/she thought about the common issue, in order to pursue his/her own issue. In addition to these conditions-that form groupthink in music classes, there are the following three causal conditions: 1. Using teaching materials that can easily elicit an individual's unique and subjective cognition of music. 2. Pursuing a groupthink issue relating music, words and movements. 3. Expanding the contents of the common issue from parts of the music to related parts of the whole.
  • Tetsuya UMEMOTO
    アメリカ研究
    1982年 1982 巻 16 号 231-242
    発行日: 1982/03/25
    公開日: 2010/10/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 三浦 恵美, 朝倉 京子
    日本看護管理学会誌
    2016年 20 巻 1 号 38-48
    発行日: 2016/07/15
    公開日: 2018/08/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    本研究は看護師長が認識する「サクセスフルな部署運営」と,「サクセスフルな部署運営」を達成するための看護師長の取り組みを明らかにすることを目的に行った.調査は300床以上の総合病院1施設に勤務する看護師長経験が5年以上の看護師長9人を対象とした.1人当たり60分程度のインタビューを行い,看護師長が認識しているサクセスフルな部署運営とはどのようなものか,そのためにどのような働きかけを行っているのか,詳しく聞き取った.修正版グラウンデッド・セオリー・アプローチを用いて分析を行い,分析テーマを『看護師長がとらえる「サクセスフルな部署運営」とは何か,看護師長は「サクセスフルな部署運営」を達成するためにどのような取り組みを行っているか』と設定し分析を行った.分析の結果,19の概念が抽出され,7つのカテゴリーにまとめられた.看護師長たちは【看護師の個性を把握する】【他者の視点を取り入れる】【看護師の主体性を引き出す】ことから【計画を練る】土台を作っていた.一方で【話し合いができる風土を育てる】ことにも取り組んでいた.話し合いができる風土が醸成された段階で,看護師長が考えた構想を看護師に提案することで【皆がかかわる部署運営】を引き出し,【継続性のある看護の質向上】を主導していた.看護師が変わったとしても同質の看護を提供できる部署を導出するために,看護師長は看護師との話し合いによる部署の意思決定を行っていると考えられた.

  • 吉川 肇子
    日本医療薬学会年会講演要旨集
    2010年 20 巻 S14-2
    発行日: 2010/10/25
    公開日: 2019/01/19
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 花輪 正明
    日本医療薬学会年会講演要旨集
    2010年 20 巻 S14-1
    発行日: 2010/10/25
    公開日: 2019/01/19
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • Mark R. Lepper, Paul C. Whitmore, Eugene Matusov, Cynthia White, Jonathan Tudge, Margarita Azmitia, Shunichi Maruno, Kazuo Kato, David Klahr, Shari Ellis, Kevin Dunbar, Naomi Miyake, Giyoo Hatano, Kayoko Inagaki
    認知科学
    1996年 3 巻 4 号 4_7-4_31
    発行日: 1996/11/30
    公開日: 2008/10/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 植田 一博, 丹羽 清
    認知科学
    1996年 3 巻 4 号 4_102-4_118
    発行日: 1996/11/30
    公開日: 2008/10/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    As the proverb “two heads are better than one” says, people often expect that collaborative activities bring about emergence of knowledge or ideas. In order to confirm whether there is actually the possibility of emergence through collaboration, the authors investigated actual collaborative activities in research & development processes based on the hierarchical interview method. First, a case study of developing a new impactful detergent was made in detail. As a result, three kinds of collaboration (interdepartmental collaboration, interdisciplinary one between two teams, and interdisciplinary one between two individual members) were observed. Especially, an interdepartmental collaboration was clarified to be significant in the case. Second, some cases of collaboration which were brought about in a relatively short time span were analyzed and, as a result, collaborative interactions in organizational knowledge creation were classified into three types. This study indicates that new ideas or knowledge can be emerged through collaboration in actual research & development processes.
  • Thomas BRUDERMANN, Romana RAUTER, Yoshiki YAMAGATA
    Innovation and Supply Chain Management
    2013年 7 巻 3 号 83-
    発行日: 2013/09/30
    公開日: 2014/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    The current discussion on urban resilience is dominated by infrastructural and technological considerations. Although behavioral reactions to extreme events very well impact the overall resilience of urban systems, they are not very well considered. In order to close this gap, we review relevant insights on human decision making and collective dynamics, and propose a framework for studying behavioral aspects in the context of urban resilience. We findthat human decision making is often based on simple ‘heuristics'. Especially in emergency situations, e.g. during or in the aftermath of extreme events, simple decision making rules replace careful and rational assessment of different choice alternatives. However, collective reactions to extreme events are note only dependent on individual decisions, but are shaped by complex interactions of various system elements, including the natural and manmade environment, people's interactions with the environment, and people's interactions with each other. For a proper anticipation of possible collective reactions and their impact on urban systems, we suggest agent-based simulations which utilize decision making insights and interaction data gathered in experiments and in the field. The current discussion on urban resilience is dominated by infrastructural and technological considerations.
  • Leena ILMOLA, Byeongwon PARK, Jung HYUN YOON
    Innovation and Supply Chain Management
    2013年 7 巻 2 号 58-65
    発行日: 2013/06/30
    公開日: 2014/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    The environment dominated by emerging uncertainties set a challenge to decision making. Our paper describes a method developed to plan for uncertainty. As the basis for theoretical elaboration we examine ontological uncertainty,the situation where we do not know what we do not know. We describe a method called “Seven Shocks ”planning method and its theoretical framework. The two fundamentals of the method are instrumental usage of extreme events and definition of the portfolio of resilience developing actions.
  • 上田 泰
    オフィス・オートメーション
    1996年 17 巻 2-1 号 82-84
    発行日: 1996/06/07
    公開日: 2019/01/15
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 三隅 二不二, 渥美 公秀, 矢守 克也
    社会心理学研究
    1989年 4 巻 1 号 11-22
    発行日: 1989/03/15
    公開日: 2016/11/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    The inhabitants' response before and after a landslide disaster was examined. The disaster was characterized by the following three distinctive features. First, in one of the damaged areas, the inhabitants were given, a week in advance, an instruction to evacuate because of an eventual landslide. However, no landslide occurred then. Second, in another damaged area, where no pre-instruction were given, there were 26 victims, while no person was victimized to death in the area mentioned above. Third, some inhabitants constituted a committee to cope with the disaster. We conducted a series of research using face-to-face interview and questionnaire method. 145 of the 241 inhabitants answered the questionnaire. The results showed three major points. First, the instruction for evacuation in the case of pre-landslide, was perceived positively by the inhabitants. Second, some interpersonal networks formed by the inhabitants had much positive effects on their coping with the disaster. Third, the inhabitants tended to believe that the landslide was due more to technical and organizational reasons after and before the disaster than to natural ones.
  • 尾澤 重知, 望月 俊男, 江木 啓訓, 國藤 進
    日本科学教育学会年会論文集
    2003年 27 巻
    発行日: 2003/07/20
    公開日: 2018/05/16
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    本研究では、問題発見や解決などの学習者による知識や活動構成を重視する高等教育での授業実践を対象とし、メーリングリスト上におけるグループの協調過程を事例研究によって検討した。本事例では、研究課題や仮説の構成方法や、グループ内の分業の仕方に特徴が見られており、グループの知識の構成方法に応じた支援のあり方の検討の必要性が示唆される。
  • 縄田 健悟
    エモーション・スタディーズ
    2015年 1 巻 1 号 9-16
    発行日: 2015/10/01
    公開日: 2017/04/24
    ジャーナル フリー

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of emotions in the escalation and reduction of intergroup conflicts. This paper reviews and discusses studies on emotions in intergroup conflict. This paper aims to understand recent findings and indicate future areas of focus regarding how emotions elicit discrimination, prejudice, and war. First, I introduce intergroup emotions theory, one of the most important theories on intergroup relations, and discuss the relation between intergroup emotions and intergroup aggression. Second, I examine collective emotions, which is the social or group phenomenon of sharing intergroup emotions across the entire group. Finally, I review studies on emotion regulation in intergroup conflicts and provide ways for resolving conflicts by intervening in real intergroup conflicts.

  • 北原 康富
    リアルオプション研究
    2010年 3 巻 2 号 159-183
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2010/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Decision making in business planning is an essential managerial activity to invest corporate resources. Spreadsheet software like Excel is commonly utilized in financial planning in business decision. The dynamic re-calculation function of spreadsheet makes users to perform so called "What-If analysis", that is to change decisional and/or environmental values and to observe objective values like NPV with a financial model described on a spreadsheet. The "VI(Visual Interactive)-What-If" contrived by the researcher is an extended feature to Excel to change cell values by moving a mouse on slide bars instead of using a keyboard. The dynamic and continuous data change shows the financial model as "animation". The VI-What-If is expected to make users to handle financial models not only efficiently but also effectively because of its cognitive effect. This study is to research how the function affects quality of decisions in business planning by conducting user experiment. It was found that VI-What-If function affects users to recognize more risk and reduce overconfidence.
  • Satoshi KAWASE, Takayuki ITO, Takanobu OTSUKA, Akihisa SENGOKU, Shun SHIRAMATSU, Tokuro MATSUO, Tetsuya OISHI, Rieko FUJITA, Naoki FUKUTA, Katsuhide FUJITA
    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
    2018年 E101.D 巻 4 号 847-855
    発行日: 2018/04/01
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー

    Performance based on multi-party discussion has been reported to be superior to that based on individuals. However, it is impossible that all participants simultaneously express opinions due to the time and space limitations in a large-scale discussion. In particular, only a few representative discussants and audiences can speak in conventional unidirectional discussions (e.g., panel discussion), although many participants gather for the discussion. To solve these problems, in this study, we proposed a cyber-physical discussion using “COLLAGREE,” which we developed for building consensus of large-scale online discussions. COLLAGREE is equipped with functions such as a facilitator, point ranking system, and display of discussion in tree structure. We focused on the relationship between satisfaction with the discussion and participants' desire to express opinions. We conducted the experiment in the panel discussion of an actual international conference. Participants who were audiences in the floor used COLLAGREE during the panel discussion. They responded to questionnaires after the experiment. The main findings are as follows: (1) Participation in online discussion was associated with the satisfaction of the participants; (2) Participants who desired to positively express opinions joined the cyber-space discussion; and (3) The satisfaction of participants who expressed opinions in the cyber-space discussion was higher than those of participants who expressed opinions in the real-space discussion and those who did not express opinions in both the cyber- and real-space discussions. Overall, active behaviors in the cyber-space discussion were associated with participants' satisfaction with the entire discussion, suggesting that cyberspace provided useful alternative opportunities to express opinions for audiences who used to listen to conventional unidirectional discussions passively. In addition, a complementary relationship exists between participation in the cyber-space and real-space discussions. These findings can serve to create a user-friendly discussion environment.

  • 朝岡 大輔
    組織学会大会論文集
    2018年 7 巻 2 号 434-439
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    Japanese corporate law requires that boards have three or more directors, and thus makes group decision making obligatory within firms. But according to some observers, boards of directors are often a mere formality in Japan, especially for non-public and small-to-medium-sized firms. The literature of behavioral science shows that group decision making does not necessarily produce better outcomes than individual decisions. The three-or-more requirement was formed with path dependency dating back to the late 19th century, when Japan transplanted legal systems from overseas, but it was by no means the standard. Giving managers flexibility in organizational design is desirable in that it can facilitate the establishment of startups, new subsidiaries and joint ventures both by existing firms and entrepreneurs, and can also address potential labor shortages in an aging Japan.

  • 池田 浩
    組織学会大会論文集
    2015年 4 巻 1 号 120-125
    発行日: 2015/07/31
    公開日: 2015/07/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this research is to examine the function of gratitude in Japanese organization. In previous studies, the emotion of gratitude has been examined from the perspective of positive psychology; therefore, it has not fully been shown whether gratitude has an effect on job performance within organizations. In this study, company A regularly conducts meetings with its many employees, who express gratitude in various ways. To examine the ways in which these employees express gratitude and its effect on the meetings (e.g., attendance, engagement) we conducted interviews (n = 4) and questionnaires (n = 49). Results indicate that the frequency of participating in a meeting is positively associated with a disposition of gratitude. Furthermore, we used mediation analyses to test whether perspective-taking (i.e., viewing the situation from an alternative perspective) mediated the effect of a gratitude disposition and what effect it has on three job performances: task-based, contextual, and proactive performance. These results showed an indirect effect of gratitude on contextual and proactive performance through perspective-taking. This suggests that organizations should effectively manage the emotion of gratitude, especially in workplace environments that demand cooperation.
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