This paper describes image recognition by using Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ). GLVQ has been proposed as a learning method of reference vectors that ensures convergence of them during learning. By formulating a novel learning scheme called General Loss Minimization (GLM) based on Bayes decision theory, GLVQ can be extended to various discrimination methods including Inverse of Lorentzian Mixture (ILM) and Discriminative Dimensionality Reduction (DDR). Application to motorcycle recognition reveals that the proposed method work well in the real world, and it contributes to the achievement of safe and secure societies.
Single shot three-dimensional shape measurement system using multiple slits with random dots is introduced. In general slit-ray projection method, a laser slit is swept on the surface of an object. While the laser slit is being swept, the object and the position of the measurement apparatus should to be stationary. So, this sweeping prevents the handheld measurement. In order to cope with this problem, three-dimensional measurement system has been developed to acquire instantaneous shape without sweeping the laser slit on the object. Multiple laser slits are projected on the object and many line segments of laser slits appear in a single image. In order to calculate the three-dimensional position using triangulation geometry, each line segment has to be identified to know the direction of the laser projection. In this paper, the robust identification method is introduced. Random dots projected along the slit are utilized to identify each line segment. Some points on the line segment are randomly sampled and template images surrounding the sampled points are set. The line segment is identified by using the pattern of the random dots in the template. Experimental results show the feasibility of our method.
This paper shows a proposal of servo type jerk sensor and its application to air type anti-vibration apparatus as feedback (FB) sensor. Servo type sensor of displacement, velocity, and acceleration can be realized by changing FB according to a law of differential and integral calculus. Thus, servo type jerk sensor is incarnated by using integral FB. Applying the three types of FB in addition to integral FB makes jerk sensor stability behavior. In order to confirm that prototype sensor can use not only observation sensor but also FB sensor, this sensor applies to air type anti-vibration apparatus. Time and frequency responses show that machine impedance operation for the air type anti-vibration apparatus (AVA) using jerk FB varies the natural frequency. However, in the result, it also confirmed that phase characteristic of the jerk sensor is not sufficient. Due to this, plate spring of the pendulum in the sensor is stiffened. In the result, phase and sensitivity characteristics of jerk sensor are improved. Then, the sensor applies to the air type AVA again. Machine impedance operation for the AVA is confirmed sufficiently. From these results, it confirms that jerk sensor is realized and employs not only observation but also feedback sensors.
A classification technique of using a new feature named ‘Extended Jaccard index” of cross-sectional shapes of firing pin impression is proposed. The three-dimensional data of the marks on the cartridge cases are measured by a confocal microscopy. After measurement of marks, horizontal and vertical cross-sectional shapes of firing pin impression are effectively extracted. A similarity between the two cartridge cases is designed on these shapes, and the similarities are divided into the identical firearm group and the different firearm group by the quadratic discriminant analysis. As a result, the new feature-based cross-sectional shape evaluation is effective in firearm classification.
Japanese sword is one of the most important representative traditional crafts in Japan. The familiar characteristics of Japanese sword is the mechanical functionality and beauty of handcrafts industrial art. Newly produced Japanese swords by the modern sword smith work are rated by the prominent (expert) sword smiths and so on. However, novice sometimes cannot understand the difference of the evaluation results. This paper tries the scientific evaluation of the beauty of the Japanese sword from the viewpoints of both the sword smiths and novice. Here, a sensual information is one of the beauty items of the Japanese sword. The sensual information is felt by the sensibility combined by the several components. In this paper, the order of priority and relevance of these several components are clarified by using the DEMATEL method. Moreover, by using the Thurstone method, the viewpoint of the novice is determined.
Awareness of energy consumption has been recognized as one critical activities in modern manufacturing. It is important to predict accurately power consumption per unit manufacturing process, in order to enhance energy-saving strategy in product design, process planning and also manufacturing operations. This study proposes a new analytical model to predict power consumption in metal machining based on specific energy intensity, which has a close relation to production rate such as material removal rate. Through machining experiments by using a developed measurement system, we demonstrate that our model can be substantially distinguished from conventional empirical models, and that the proposed model can estimate power consumption with high accuracy and robustness.
We propose a new high precision, high quality laser cutting process for semiconductor substrates such as Si, SiC and diamond. According to this method, micro cracks are introduced inside the material by appropriate focusing of the laser beam. A scanning laser beam, then, connects the cracks so as to realize three dimensional cutting. In this paper, we focus on the effects of laser energy, laser pitch and spherical aberration on the shape of the micro cracks. High quality laser cutting is achieved by forming minute and uniform cracks regardless of the crystal orientation and heating produced. In order to ascertain the three dimensional cutting process, cutting out with round chamfering is realized.
Wheel scribing techniques were commonly used for glass separation. We have studied on the internal stress field during/after wheel scribing using the photoelastic method. Internal stress data obtained by photoelastic method was integrated data of the light progression, and internal stress induced by a scribing wheel distributed three-dimensionally. This characteristic complicates the explanation of the photoelastic data. In this paper, we investigate two dimensional internal stress fields by the indentation of a wedge on a thin glass sheet. As a result, birefringence and azimuthal angle was obtained during/after the indentation. Internal stress by the plastic deformation was observed. First, median cracks were propagated after the indentation, then lateral cracks were propagated. The internal stress was released along with the crack propagation.