Galápagos tortoises are a symbolic animal in terms of conservation biology as well as evolutionary biology, and both in situ and ex situ conservation programs are currently underway. For endangered species, captive individuals can perform a certain role as genetic reservoirs for ongoing and future breeding programs We examined the genetic identities of two giant tortoises in Ueno Zoo, Japan. The mitochondrial genotype of the older tortoise, Taro, as appeared to be that of Chelonoidis porteri from Santa Cruz island. The mitochondrial genotype of the younger tortoise, Kamekichi, was identified as either C. becki from the northern area of Isabela island, or C. darwini from Santiago island. These genetic analyses serve as reference data for the future conservation management of captive Galápagos tortoises.
A fossil identified as Orlitia borneensis was found from the river bottom of the Solo River in Sambungmacan, eastern Central Java, Indonesia. The sandy matrix attached to the specimen strongly suggests that it was eroded out from the Middle Pleistocene fluvial deposit on the river bank, as most of the assorted vertebrate fossils have been found from this area. Because two fragmentary fossils that were previously referred to this species from the Lower Pleistocene of Trinil lack diagnostic morphological characteristics, the specimen reported here is the first certain fossil record of the species from Java. The present findings suggest that O. borneensis had a wider distribution in the past, but the Java population would have become extinct by the end of the Middle Pleistocene.