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  • Nguyen Thoi NHAM, Phan Van DE, Tran Cong LUAN, Nguyen Minh DUC, Shoji SHIBATA, Osamu TANAKA, Ryoji KASAI
    The Journal of Japanese Botany
    1995 Volume 70 Issue 1 1-10
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released on J-STAGE: October 21, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Nguyen Thi Thu Huong, Kinzo Matsumoto, Kazuo Yamasaki, Nguyen Minh Duc, Nguyen Thoi Nham, Hiroshi Watanabe
    The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology
    1996 Volume 71 Issue 4 345-349
    Published: 1996
    Released on J-STAGE: April 06, 2006
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The effect of majonoside-R2 on morphine and U-50, 488H-induced antinociception was examined by the tail-pinch test in mice and compared with that of diazepam. Majonoside-R2 and diazepam inhibited the morphine and U-50, 488H-induced antinociception, and the actions were antagonized by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil and the GABA-gated Cl- channel blocker picrotoxin. Diazepam but not majonoside-R2 exhibited a protective activity against convulsion caused by the GABAA antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. These results indicate that GABAA systems are involved in the effect of majonoside-R2 on the opioid-induced antinociception and suggest that the mechanisms of action of majonoside-R2 may differ from those of diazepam.
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  • Nguyen Thi Thu HOUNG, Kinzo MATSUMOTO, Ryoji KASAI, Kazuo YAMASAKI, Hiroshi WATANABE
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    1998 Volume 21 Issue 9 978-981
    Published: September 15, 1998
    Released on J-STAGE: April 10, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    To elucidate the antioxidant action of
    Vietnamese
    ginseng saponin against free radial-mediated cellular damage, we examined the effect of
    Vietnamese
    ginseng saponin on lipid peroxidation in the mouse brain, liver, and liver microsomes by using two in vitro free radical generating systems (iron ferrous+ascorbic acid and iron ferrous+hydrogen peroxide). Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the endogenous and stimulated accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA-RS).
    Vietnamese
    ginseng saponin (0.05-0.5 mg/ml), as well as vitamin E, significantly inhibited the formation of TBA-RS in tissue homogenates.
    Panax
    ginseng saponin, at the same concentration range as
    Vietnamese
    ginseng saponin, also had inhibitory action on free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. However, majonoside-R2, ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside-Rb1, the main saponin components of
    Vietnamese
    ginseng saponin fraction, had no effect on lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that
    Vietnamese
    ginseng exerts a protective action against free radical-induced tissue injury and that this effect is attributable to minor components rather than the main saponin components tested.
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  • Nguyen MINH DUC, Nguyen THOI NHAM, Ryoji KASAI, Aiko ITO, Kazuo YAMASAKI, Osamu TANAKA
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    1993 Volume 41 Issue 11 2010-2014
    Published: November 15, 1993
    Released on J-STAGE: March 31, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    From rhizomes and roots of
    Panax
    vietnamensis HA et GRUSHV., Araliaceae, commonly known as
    Vietnamese
    Ginseng, two new acetylated saponins named vina-ginsenoside-R1 (13) and vina-ginsenoside-R2 (15) were isolated. On the basis of chemical and spectral data, 13 was formulated as monoacetyl 24(S)-pseudo-ginsenoside-F11 and 15 was proved to be monoacetyl majonoside-R2.Besides the two new saponins and β-sitosteryl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, sixteen known saponins were also isolated and identified. Dammarane saponins : ginsenoside-Rh1 and 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rh1 (1), ginsenosides-Rg1 (2), -Re (3), -Rd(6), -Rb3 (7), -Rb2 (8), -Rb1 (9), pseudo-ginsenoside-RS1 (=monoacetyl ginsenoside-Re, 4), notoginsenosides-R1 (5) and -Fa (10). Ocotillol-type saponins : pseudo-ginsenoside-RT4 (11), 24(S)-pseudo-ginsenoside-F11 (12), majonosides-R1 (16) and -R2 (14). Oleanolic acid saponins : ginsenoside-Ro (=chikusetsusaponin V, 17) and hemsloside-Ma3 (18), a saponin previously isolated from a cucurbitaceous plant, Hemsleya macrosperma C. Y. WU.Despite having large horizontally elongated rhizomes, the underground part of this plant contains mainly dammarane saponins and a small amount of oleanolic acid saponins. In addition, the yield of ocotillol-type saponins, especially majonoside-R2, is surprisingly very high (more than 5% and ca. half of the total yield of saponin). This characteristic saponin composition has made
    Vietnamese
    Ginseng an interesting species among
    Panax
    spp.
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  • Oanh T. P. Kim, Manh D. Le, Hoang X. Trinh, Hai V. Nong
    Biophysics and Physicobiology
    2016 Volume 13 173-180
    Published: 2016
    Released on J-STAGE: July 14, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays an important role in inflammatory process and tumor development. Recent studies demonstrate that triterpene saponins from

    Vietnamese
    ginseng are efficient inhibitors of TNF-α. But the interactions between TNF-α and the saponins are still unclear. In this study, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations of TNF-α with three different triterpene saponins (majonoside R2, vina-ginsenoside R1 and vina-ginsenoside R2) were performed to evaluate their binding ability. Our results showed that the triterpene saponins have a good binding affinity with protein TNF-α. The saponins were docked to the pore at the top of the “bell” or “cone” shaped TNF-α trimer and the complexes were structurally stable during 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation. The predicted binding sites would help to subsequently investigate the inhibitory mechanism of triterpene saponins.

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  • Shu ZHU, Hirotoshi FUSHIMI, Shaoqing CAl, Hubiao CHEN, Katsuko KOMATSU
    The Journal of Japanese Botany
    2003 Volume 78 Issue 2 86-94
    Published: April 20, 2003
    Released on J-STAGE: October 21, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    A new variety of

    Panax
    L., P. vietnamensis Ha & Grushv. var. fuscidiscus K.Komatsu, S.Zhu & S.Q.Cai is described, together with its nucleotide sequences of 18S rRNA gene and matK gene. On the basis of both gene sequences, the phylogenetic relationship among the new variety and other 6
    Panax
    taxa has been investigated. This new variety exhibits a close relationship with P. vietnamensis in morphological characters as well as molecular evidences, but differs from it in having flat, fuscous or vaccinous disk and completely separated styles in 2-styled flowers, besides the unique nucleotide sequences of matK gene. Its somatic chromosome number is 2n = 2x = 24.

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  • Shogo TOKUYAMA, Masakatsu TAKAHASHI
    Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
    2001 Volume 117 Issue 3 195-201
    Published: 2001
    Released on J-STAGE: September 27, 2002
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Pharmacological and physiological effects of ginseng on actions induced by opioids and psychostimulants were summarized. Analgesic effects of opioids, such as morphine and U-50, 488H, were blocked by ginseng in a non-opioid dependent manner. Furthermore, ginseng inhibited the tolerance to and dependence on morphine, and prevented the supressive effect on the development of morphine tolerance caused by coexposure to foot-shock stress, but not psychological stress. On the other hand, behavioral sensitization (reverse tolerance to ambulation-accelerating effect) to morphine, methamphetamine (MAP) and cocaine was also inhibited by ginseng. Interestingly, ginseng also inhibited the appearance of the recurrent phenomenon (reappearance of the sensitized state was observed at the time of readministration of MAP and cocaine even after a 30-day discontinuation of drug administration) of the effect of MAP and cocaine. The conditioned place preference of MAP and cocaine was completely blocked by ginseng. These findings provide evidence that ginseng may be useful clinically for the prevention of abuse and dependence of opioids and psychostimulants.
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  • Thi Hong Van Le, Gwang Jin Lee, Huynh Kim Long Vu, Sung Won Kwon, Ngoc Khoi Nguyen, Jeong Hill Park, Minh Duc Nguyen
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2015 Volume 63 Issue 11 950-954
    Published: November 01, 2015
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2015
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Chemical and pharmacological studies of
    Panax
    vietnamensis
    (
    Vietnamese
    ginseng; VG) have been reported since its discovery in 1973. However, the content of each saponin in different parts of VG has not been reported. In this study, 17 ginsenosides in the different underground parts of P. vietnamensis were analyzed by HPLC/evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Their contents in the dried rhizome, radix, and fine roots were 195, 156, and 139 mg/g, respectively, which were extremely high compared to other
    Panax
    species. The content of protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins were not much different among underground parts; however, the content of protopanaxadiol (PPD)- and ocotillol (OCT)-type saponins were greatly different. It is noteworthy that the ginsenoside pattern in the fine roots is different from other underground parts. In particular, despite the content of PPD-type saponins being the highest in the fine roots, which is similar to other
    Panax
    species, the total content of saponins was the lowest in the fine roots, which is different from other
    Panax
    species. The ratios of PPT : PPD : OCT-type saponins were 1 : 1.7 : 7.8, 1 : 1.6 : 5.5, and 1 : 4.8 : 3.3 for the rhizome, radix, and fine roots, respectively. OCT-type saponins accounted for 36–75% of total saponins and contributed mostly to the difference in the total saponin content of each part.
  • -Phylogenetic analysis, molecular authentication and quality evaluation-
    Katsuko KOMATSU, Shu ZHU, Yohei SASAKI
    Journal of Traditional Medicines
    2004 Volume 21 Issue 6 251-270
    Published: 2004
    Released on J-STAGE: December 28, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    We proposed pharmacognostical studies in the prime of molecular biology, citing the systematic studies of
    Panax
    drugs and Curcuma drugs. Each study was composed of three approaches, phylogenetic analysis of plants based on nuclear 18S rRNA and chloroplast trnK gene sequences, molecular authentication of herbal drugs, and quality evaluation on bioactive chemical constituents or pharmacological effect. Parsimony analysis of the combined trnK-18S rRNA gene sequence data yielded a well-resolved phylogeny within genus
    Panax
    . Based on species-specific sequences of the 2 genes, all the
    Panax
    drugs could be identified, furthermore, multiplex amplification refractory mutation system assay was developed for the authentication of 5 important drugs. Quantitative analysis on 11 saponins revealed that each taxon possessed its own characteristic pattern. The trnK/18S rRNA gene sequences could be used not only for an ultimate authentication but also for a speculation of the chemical constituent pattern that affects pharmacological effects. By the same molecular analysis as genus
    Panax
    , the potential method for identification of Chinese and Japanese Curcuma species was developed, making it possible to identify Curcuma drugs unambiguously. Using 5 drugs, we examined the effects on vasomotion in rat aortic rings as one index against "Oketsu." All methanol extracts exhibited intense NO-independent relaxation effects. All water extracts showed relaxation effects as the sum of the methanol-soluble compounds-induced relaxation and polysaccharides-induced contraction. Only the water extract of C. zedoaria showed NO-dependent relaxation besides NO-independent relaxation which is common to the other drugs, suggesting the drug derived from C. zedoaria has the potential to cure Oketsu with its various acting points. Such a series of studies will become necessary for standardization of herbal drugs and for their efficient uses.
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  • Biophysics and Physicobiology
    2016 Volume 13 207
    Published: 2016
    Released on J-STAGE: August 24, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (577K)
  • Nguyen MINH DUC, Ryoji KASAI, Kazuhiro OHTANI, Aiko ITO, Nguyen THOI NHAM, Kazuo YAMASAKI, Osamu TANAKA
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    1994 Volume 42 Issue 1 115-122
    Published: January 15, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: March 31, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Further investigation on the saponin composition of rhizomes and roots of
    Panax
    vietnamensis HA et GRUSHV. has resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of seven new dammarane saponins named vina-ginsenosides-R3 (12), -R4 (11), -R5 (16), -R6 (17), -R7 (6), -R8 (20), -R9 (22), together with the identification of six of known saponins including 20-gluco-ginsenoside-Rf (10), ginsenoside-Rc (4), notoginsenoside-R6 (9), quinquenoside-R1 (5), gypenoside XVII (2) and majoroside F1 (21). The structures of the novel saponins were established on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. Vina-ginsenoside-R3 is the first naturally occurring glycoside of dammarenediol II, while vina-ginsenosides-R5 and -R6, two ocotillol-type saponins, are two other examples of saponins having the rare α-glucosyl linkage.
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  • Kampo Medicine
    2000 Volume 50 Issue 5 767-793
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released on J-STAGE: March 12, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Osamu TANAKA, Eyong-Chae HAN, Hiroyuki YAMAGUCHI, Hiromichi MATSUURA, Toshiyuki MURAKAMI, Toshio TANIYAMA, Masayuki YOSHIKAWA
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2000 Volume 48 Issue 6 889-892
    Published: June 01, 2000
    Released on J-STAGE: March 31, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Panax
    pseudo-ginseng subsp. pseudo-ginseng has a carrot like root with a small rhizome. It was shown that the saponin composition of roots and rhizomes of this subspecies collected in Tibet and China was extremely poor. From the roots and rhizomes collected in Central Nepal, (specimen-PNct), only a small amount of an oleanolic acid saponin, β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolate (2) was isolated together with a polyacetylene-alcohol, panaxynol (3). In another specimen (specimen-PNs), also collected in Central Nepal, two oleanolic acid saponins, stipleanoside R2 (4) and chikusetsusaponin IV (5) were detected. No dammarane saponin was identified in either specimen. P. pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus (Subsp-H) has a big rhizome with a small round root. From rhizomes and roots of this subsp. collected in Central Nepal (specimen-HNct), a fairly large amount of dammarane saponins, ginsenosides-Rb1 (6), -Rd (7), -Re (9) and -Rg1 (10), gypenoside XVII (8), notoginsenoside-R1 (11), majonoside-R2 (12) and pseudo-ginsenoside-F11 (13) were isolated, while no oleanane saponin (oleanolic acid saponin) was identified in this subsp. Based on the present and previous studies, medicinal evaluation and chemogeographical correlation of Himalayan
    Panax
    spp. are discussed.
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  • Minh Duc NGUYEN, Ryoji KASAI, Kazuhiro OHTANI, Aiko ITO, Thoi Nham NGUYEN, Kazuo YAMASAKI, Osamu TANAKA
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    1994 Volume 42 Issue 3 634-640
    Published: March 15, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: March 31, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Five new dammarane saponins derived from four new aglycones were isolated from the rhizomes and roots of
    Panax
    vietnamensis HA et GRUSHV. On the basis of physicochemical and spectral evidence, the structures of these compounds were established as 6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl 20(S), 25-epoxydammarane-3β, 6α, 12β, 24α-tetrol (1), 6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 20(S), 25-epoxydammarane- 3β, 6α, 12β, 24α-tetrol (2), 6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl dammarane-3β, 6α, 12β, 20(S), 24ξ, 25-hexol (5), 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl dammarane-3β, 12β, 20(S), 24ξ, 25-pentol (8) and 6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 20(S), 24(S)-epoxydammarane-3β, 6α, 12β, 25ξ, 26-pentol (10). The trivial names, vina-ginsenoside-R10, -R11, -R12, -R13 and -R14, respectively, were assigned to the new saponins.
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  • Shu Zhu, Kun Zou, Shaoqing Cai, Meselhy Ragab Meselhy, Katsuko Komatsu
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2004 Volume 52 Issue 8 995-998
    Published: 2004
    Released on J-STAGE: August 10, 2004
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 11 triterpene saponins with four-type aglycones (protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, ocotillol and oleanolic acid types) in Ginseng drugs was developed and validated. Using a gradient of acetonitrile and 10 mM K-phosphate buffer (pH 5.80) as the mobile phase and UV detection at 196 nm, more than 18 ginsenosides with different aglycones were separated satisfactorily within 60 min. The detection limits (signal/noise≥3) were 0.1 μg for ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1, chikusetsusaponin III, and notoginsenoside R2, 0.2 μg for gisenoside Ro and chikusetsusaponin IVa, 0.3 μg for chikusetsusaponin IV, and 3 μg for majonoside R2. The calibration curve of each saponin had a correlation coefficient close to 1. Intra- and interday precisions were less than 2.1% (n=5) and 3.3% (n=15), respectively. The recovery rates of extraction were in the range of 96.4—102.7% for all ginsenosides. By adopting this method, the determinations of 11 ginsenosides in three Ginseng drugs derived from
    Panax
    ginseng
    ,
    Panax
    vietnamensis
    var. fuscidiscus and
    Panax
    japonicus
    (Japan) were achieved.
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  • Nguyen Huu Tung, Tran Hong Quang, Nguyen Thi Thanh Ngan, Chau Van Minh, Bui Kim Anh, Pham Quoc Long, Nguyen Manh Cuong, Young Ho Kim
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2011 Volume 59 Issue 11 1417-1420
    Published: November 01, 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Ten oleanane-type saponins (110), including three new compounds, namely bifinosides A—C (13), were isolated from the roots of
    Panax
    bipinnatifidus
    SEEM. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods.
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  • Masayuki Yoshikawa, Sachiko Sugimoto, Seikou Nakamura, Hisashi Matsuda
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2007 Volume 55 Issue 4 571-576
    Published: 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: April 01, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Six new dammarane-type triterpene diglycosides with a hydroperoxide group, floralginsenosides A, B, C, D, E, and F, were isolated from ginseng flower, the flower buds of
    Panax
    ginseng
    C. A. MEYER, together with seven known dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides. The structures of new floralginsenosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.
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  • Takao KONOSHIMA, Midori TAKASAKI, Harukuni TOKUDA, Hoyoku NISHINO, Nguyen Minh DUC, Ryoji KASAI, Kazuo YAMASAKI
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    1998 Volume 21 Issue 8 834-838
    Published: August 15, 1998
    Released on J-STAGE: April 10, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Seven saponins (1-7) isolated from the rhizomes and roots of
    Panax
    vietnamensis were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetrade-canoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in Raji cells as a primary screening test for anit-tumor-promoters (cancer chemopreventive agents). The ocotillol-type saponin, majonoside-R2 (2), which is the major and characteristic constituent of this palnt, exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation. Furthermore, the cell cycle analysis of 2 on Raji cells was also examined and strong inhibition was observed on the effect of the cell cycle induced by TPA. Compound 2 showed potent anti-tumor-promoting activity in two-stage carcinogenesis tests of mouse skin using 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA or fumonisin B1 as a promoter. Consequently, these results suggest that majonoside-R2 (2) could be a valuabel chemopreventive agent against chemical carcinogenesis.
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  • Ryoji KASAI, Kazumasa HARA, Rumiko DOKAN, Noriko SUZUKI, Tohru MIZUTARE, Shin'ichi YOSHIHARA, Kazuo YAMASAKI
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2000 Volume 48 Issue 8 1226-1227
    Published: August 01, 2000
    Released on J-STAGE: March 31, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Incubation of ginseng sapogenins with microsomes from rat liver resulted in formation of their 20, 24-epoxides as major metabolites. Identification of the metabolites was performed by HPLC, FAB-MS and EI-MS.
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  • Kei Yura
    Biophysics and Physicobiology
    2016 Volume 13 85-86
    Published: 2016
    Released on J-STAGE: July 14, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (398K)
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