This study examines Japan’s peace policy in Africa. Peace and security are one of the central issues in Japan’s diplomacy towards Africa, and the importance is repeatedly emphasised in each Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD). As evaluation of Japan’s policy has not been studied in depth, this study attempts to fill this gap by examining the characteristics of recent armed conflicts in Africa and Japan’s policy papers on peace. The Japanese government has primarily contributed to African peace and security through multinational cooperation, as well as activities of the Self-Defence Forces (JSDF) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for peacekeeping and peacebuilding, respectively. Japan’s attempts to dispatch the JSDF to UN peace operations have been facing serious obstacles, as the country has failed to build a relevant legal framework for its activities in complex circumstances, such as current conflict-affected situations in Africa. Peacebuilding will undoubtedly be a central component of Japan’s peace policy, but which JICA activities are considered peacebuilding will depend on the country’s view on peace. Therefore, Japan is required to clarify what kind of peace it intends to build.