The constituents of cape aloe were investigated after a preliminary screening of the growth-inhibiting effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) of several extracts of this plant. Ten compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) extract that showed the strongest activity, and their structures were elucidated as aloe-emodin (1), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2), p-hydroxyacetophenone (3), pyrocatechol (4), 10-oxooctadecanoic acid (5), 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (6), methyl 10-hydroxyoctadecanoate (7), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (8), furoaloesone (9), and 2-acetonyl-8-(2-furoylmethyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromone (10) based on MS and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 2–7 were isolated for the first time from cape aloe. Compounds 4–7 and 10 showed a significant growth-inhibiting effect, and compound 1 exhibited a remarkable synergistic effect on compounds 8–10, which was not observed with the treatment by each compound alone on EATC. These results suggest that the strong growth-inhibiting effect of the CH2Cl2 extract was dependent not on one compound alone, but on the synergistic effect from the combination of compound 1 and the other compounds.