2003 Volume 26 Issue 5 Pages 631-637
Acetophenone derived mono-Mannich bases (Ig1—Ig4), 1-aryl-3-amino-1-propanone hydrochlorides, which are known to have cytotoxicity in Jurkat cells, were synthesized. Then, they were converted to corresponding azine derivatives (D1—D4), N, N′-bis(3-amino-1-aryl-propylidene)hydrazine dihydrochlorides, which are bifunctional agents. The aryl part was replaced by phenyl in Ig1, Ig2, Ig3, D1, D2, and D3, and by p-hydroxyphenyl in Ig4 and D4. The amine part was replaced by dimethylamine in Ig1, D1, Ig4 and D4, by piperidine in Ig2 and D2, and by morpholine in Ig3 and D3. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modification in chemical structure, converting the mono-Mannich base to a corresponding azine derivative, improves the cytotoxicity. In addition, the effect of the representative compound, D3, N, N′-bis(3-morpholine-4-yl-1-phenylpropylidene)hydrazine dihydrochloride, on cellular glutathione level after 1 h exposure in phosphate buffer at 37 °C was also determined to provide information on a possible mechanism of cytotoxic action. Compounds D2—D4 are reported for the first time in this study. Except for Ig2 and D2, the cytotoxicity of mono-Mannich bases, Ig1, Ig3 and Ig4 and corresponding azine derivatives, D1, D3 and D4 were higher than the reference compound 5-FU. Azine derivatives D1 and D4 had almost equal cytotoxic potency with corresponding mono-Mannich bases Ig1 and Ig4, respectively. On the other hand, azine derivatives D2 and D3, had 1.28 and 1.90-times less cytotoxicity in Jurkat cells compared with the mono-Mannich bases, Ig2 and Ig3, respectively, from which they are derived. Azine derivative D3 dose-dependently decreased the total cellular glutathione level, suggesting that azine derivatives may exert cytotoxicity by thiol alkylation. Azine derivatives with equal or less cytotoxic potency compared to the mono-Mannich bases they are derived from seemed to be less suitable derivatives for the development of new cytotoxic compounds.