Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
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Disulfide S-Monoxides Convert Xanthine Dehydrogenase into Oxidase in Rat Liver Cytosol More Potently Than Their Respective Disulfides
Satoru SakumaJunko FujitaMasahiko NakanishiShun-ich WadaYohko Fujimoto
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2008 Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 1013-1016

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Abstract

Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the effects of cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide (disulfide S-monoxides) on the conversion of XD to XO in rat liver were examined. A partially purified enzyme fraction from the rat liver was incubated with xanthine in the presence or absence of NAD+, and the uric acid formed was measured by HPLC. Under basal conditions, XO activity represented about 15% of the total XO plus XD activity. Cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide converted XD into XO in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations required to increase XO activity by 50% were approximately 1 and 2 μM, respectively. Their respective thiols (cysteamine and cysteine) and disulfides (cystamine and cystine) up to 10 μM showed weak or no effects on the activities of XO and XD and their conversion. Experiments utilizing a sulfhydryl reducing reagent (dithiothreitol) and sulfhydryl modifiers (4,4′-dithiodipyridine and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) indicated that disulfide S-monoxides-induced conversion of XD to XO occurs via disulfide bridge formation in XD, but not the modification of sulfhydryl groups. These results suggest that disulfide S-monoxides have the potential to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species through the conversion of XD to XO in liver.

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© 2008 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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