2015 Volume 38 Issue 5 Pages 656-662
High-resolution deep tissue imaging is possible with two-photon excitation microscopy. With the combined application of two-photon imaging and perfusion with a polar fluorescent tracer, we have established a method to detect exocytic events inside secretory tissues. This method displays the spatiotemporal distribution of exocytic sites, dynamics of fusion pores, and modes of exocytosis. In glucose-stimulated pancreatic islets, exocytic events were observed to be synchronized with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. Full fusion of a single secretory granule is the typical mode of exocytosis and compound exocytosis is inhibited. Because two-photon excitation enables simultaneous multicolor imaging due to the broadened excitation spectra, the distributions and conformational changes in fluorescent-labeled molecules can be simultaneously visualized with exocytic events. Therefore, we can analyze the dynamics of the molecules involved in membrane fusion and their association with exocytosis in living tissues.