2017 Volume 40 Issue 11 Pages 1990-1995
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) plays a role in various biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, the biologically active forms, are made from riboflavin. Riboflavin transporters (RFVTs), RFVT1-3/Slc52a1-3, have been identified. However, the roles of human (h)RFVTs in FMN and FAD homeostasis have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we assessed the contribution of each hRFVT to riboflavin, FMN and FAD uptake and efflux using in vitro studies. The transfection of hRFVTs increased cellular riboflavin concentrations. The uptake of riboflavin by human embryonic kidney cells transfected with hRFVTs was significantly increased, and the efflux was accelerated in a time-dependent manner. However, the uptake and efflux of FMN and FAD hardly changed. These results strongly suggest that riboflavin, rather than FMN or FAD, passes through plasma membranes via hRFVTs. Our findings could suggest that hRFVTs are involved in riboflavin homeostasis in the cells, and that FMN and FAD concentrations are regulated by riboflavin kinase and FAD synthase.