1997 Volume 20 Issue 8 Pages 939-942
The effect of acute renal failure on the pharmacokinetics concerning the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) distribution of iomeprol, a nonionic contrast agent, was studied. The concentrations of iomeprol in the plasma and CSF were measured after intravenous (i.v.) administration at the dose of 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight. The time courses of plasma and CSF concentration were linear within the dose studied. Influx and efflux clearances estimated by simultaneous fitting were 4.6×10-5 ml/min and 8.8×10-4 ml/min, respectively, which suggested that the distribution of iomeprol to CSF was low and linear. The distribution volume at steady state was 300-500 ml/kg, suggesting that iomeprol was readily distributed to the extracellular space but hardly distributed to the intercellular space. Total body clearance (9-13 ml/min/kg) indicated that iomeprol was mainly excreted by glomerular filtration. In the rat with acute renal failure induced by ligating the binary ureters, the concentration of iomeprol in CSF after i.v. administration of 500 mg/kg dose was much higher than that in the intact rat according to the delay of elimination from plasma (CLtot=0.07 ml/min/kg). However, the time course of iomeprol concentration in CSF was predictable using the values of the influx clearance to CSF and the efflux clearance from CSF determined by intact rats. In conclusion, renal failure is one risk factor for central nervous system toxicity because of decreased total body clearance, while acute renal failure may not affect the transport of iomeprol to CSF.