1998 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 594-598
We previously found that a methanolic extract of the stems of Sambucus sieboldiana inhibited bone resorption in organ culture. In this study, we further fractionated the methanol extract guided by the activity towards bone resorption stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) in vitro. The ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc Fr.) of the methanolic extract inhibited PTH-stimulated bone resorption of neonatal mouse bones, and the inhibitory activity was more potent than those of other fractions. Oral administration of the EtOAc Fr. (50 and 100 mg/kg/d) to ovariectomized (OVX) rat prevented the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar (L2-4) vertebra, indicating that the EtOAc Fr. is effective in vivo. Furthermore, the EtOAc Fr. (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/d) decreased the serum calcium level elevated in low calcium dietary rats. The phenolic constituents of the EtOAc fraction were examined for their inhibitory effect on bone resorption stimulated by PTH in neonatal mouse bone. Among them, vanillic acid, vanillin and coniferyl alcohol showed significant inhibitory effects on bone resorption. Of the compounds examined, vanillic acid was found to have a significant inhibitory effect on the decrease of BMD in OVX mice. Therefore, the EtOAc Fr. of S. sieboldiana showed a suppressive effect on bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the inhibitory effects of the EtOAc Fr. on bone resorption may be at least partly due to the inhibitory action of vanillic acid.