Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
Clinical Investigation
Identification of Functional Block Line in Atrial Flutter Using Three-Dimensional Intracardiac Echocardiography
Akihiko IshidaAkihiro YoshidaHidetsuna KitamuraShinya KuboKoji FukuzawaKouhei YamashiroMitsuhiro Yokoyama
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2003 Volume 67 Issue 11 Pages 940-944


The crista terminalis (CT) is reportedly a critical barrier for maintaining typical atrial flutter (AFL), but recent observations have suggested the presence of posteromedial functional block, as well as crista conduction. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the correlation between the posterior boundary of AFL and anatomical architecture in the human right atrium (RA) using 3-dimensional (D) intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). In 11 patients with AFL (typical 9, reverse typical 2), mapping with a 10-pole (n=5) or 32-pole (n=6) catheter was performed during AFL. ICE was used to determine the catheter's position relative to the intra-atrial structures. In all patients, double potentials were recorded at the posteromedial RA and the catheter positions were recognized as posterior to the CT by 3-D ICE. Double potentials were not recorded on the CT, and the activation sequence revealed a craniocaudal direction in the 9 patients with typical AFL and caudocranial direction in the 2 patients with reverse typical AFL. These findings demonstrate that the posterior boundary of the AFL circuit is in the sinus venosa region posterior to the CT, which may provide an important insight into the mechanism of maintaining AFL. (Circ J 2003; 67: 940 - 944)

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