Circulation Journal
Reviews
Cardioprotection From Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
– Basic and Translational Research –
Tetsuo Minamino
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Volume 76 (2012) Issue 5 Pages 1074-1082

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Abstract

Because ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) are a major cause of mortality and heart failure, novel therapeutic approaches are expected to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with IHDs such as acute myocardial infarction and ischemic heart failure. Brief episodes of nonlethal ischemia and reperfusion before sustained ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion can reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. These ischemic conditioning phenomena are termed "ischemic preconditioning" and "ischemic postconditioning", respectively. Furthermore, brief episodes of nonlethal ischemia and reperfusion applied to the organ or tissue distal to the heart reduce myocardial infarct size, known as "remote ischemic conditioning". The cardioprotection afforded by these ischemic conditionings can be used to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or cardiac operations. Extensive research has determined that autacoids (eg, adenosine, bradykinin opioid) and cytokines, their respective receptors, kinase signaling pathways and mitochondrial modulation are involved in ischemic conditioning. Modification of these factors by pharmacological agents mimics the cardioprotection by ischemic conditioning and provides a novel therapeutic intervention for IHDs. Here, the potential mechanisms of ischemic conditioning and its "proof-of-concept" translational studies are reviewed. In the near future, large, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials will be required to determine whether pharmacological and ischemic conditioning can improve the clinical outcomes of patients with IHDs. (Circ J 2012; 76: 1074-1082)

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© 2012 THE JAPANESE CIRCULATION SOCIETY
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