Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
Focus Issue on Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy
Epidemiology and Clinical Profile of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy
Scott W. SharkeyBarry J. Maron
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2014 Volume 78 Issue 9 Pages 2119-2128


First described in Japan over 2 decades ago, takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) has emerged as a unique cardiomyopathy with world-wide recognition, mimicking acute coronary syndrome. In early TTC experience, typical patients were older women, with a triggering emotional event, ST-segment elevation, and apical ballooning left ventricular (LV) contraction pattern. However, TTC is now more heterogeneous, occurring in males and younger individuals, without ST-segment elevation, as a spontaneous event in the absence of a trigger, and with diverse LV contraction patterns. Furthermore, TTC is more common than initially thought, now constituting 10% of women with suspected acute coronary syndrome. TTC is also associated with a broader range of psychological or physical triggers, including presentation during outpatient medical evaluations or hospitalization for acute illness. Although TTC has been considered a benign condition, it now carries a small but important risk for adverse outcomes, including cardiac arrest in 5%. Hemodynamic instability requiring intervention with vasopressor drugs or intra-aortic balloon pump is necessary in 15% and in-hospital mortality is approximately 5%, largely because of refractory cardiogenic shock or irreversible major comorbid conditions. Although complete cardiac recovery usually occurs rapidly, post-hospital survival may be less than the general population of similar age, largely because of concomitant illnesses. TTC may reoccur in up to 10% of patients, but β-blocking drugs are not absolutely preventive for initial or subsequent events. (Circ J2014;78:2119–2128)

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