2017 Volume 81 Issue 1 Pages 110-118
Background:Approximately 10–20% of Kawasaki disease (KD) patients are resistant to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Further, these patients are at a particularly high risk of having coronary artery abnormalities. The mechanisms of IVIG resistance in KD have been analyzed using patient leukocytes, but not patient vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The present study clarifies the mechanisms of IVIG resistance in KD using an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) disease model.
Methods and Results:Dermal fibroblasts or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 2 IVIG-resistant and 2 IVIG-responsive KD patients were reprogrammed by the episomal vector-mediated transduction of 6 reprogramming factors. KD patient-derived iPSCs were differentiated into ECs (iPSC-ECs). The gene expression profiles of iPSC-ECs generated from IVIG-resistant and IVIG-responsive KD patients were compared by RNA-sequencing analyses. We found that the expression ofCXCL12was significantly upregulated in iPSC-ECs from IVIG-resistant KD patients. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed that gene sets involved in interleukin (IL)-6 signaling were also upregulated.
Conclusions:The first iPSC-based model for KD is reported here. Our mechanistic analyses suggest thatCXCL12, which plays a role in leukocyte transmigration, is a key molecule candidate for IVIG resistance and KD severity. They also indicate that an upregulation of IL-6-related genes may be involved in this pathogenesis.