2018 Volume 82 Issue 5 Pages 1418-1427
Background:Smoking increases the risk of atherothrombotic events. Tissue factor (TF) mainly expressed on monocytes plays an important role in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is being increasingly recognized as a major atherothrombotic risk factor, but the effects of smoking on monocyte TF activity (MTFA), carotid atherosclerosis estimated on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and long-term prognosis in MetS remain unclear.
Methods and Results:A total of 301 MetS patients lacking any known cardiovascular disease were prospectively investigated and classified into 4 groups according to smoking status at entry and at 12 months as follows: never smokers, past smokers, quitters, and persistent smokers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated, and MTFA was measured using a coagulation assay. Linear trends for higher baseline MTFA and CIMT were observed among persistent smokers, quitters, and past smokers compared with never smokers. At 12 months, MTFA and CIMT decreased in never and past smokers and quitters but increased in persistent smokers. Six acute myocardial infarctions and 8 strokes occurred during a median follow-up of 66.0 months. Persistent smoking was associated with an increased risk of events (P<0.001).
Conclusions:Smoking is associated with upregulated MTFA and progression of CIMT, which may be related to the risk of atherothrombotic events in MetS patients.