2018 Volume 82 Issue 8 Pages 2175-2183
Background:Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a significant public health concern, with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) being a common cause. However, their precise relationship in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. Furthermore, whether comorbid psychological disorders could contribute to EDS remains unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of EDS and its related factors, including SDB and depression, in patients with CVD.
Methods and Results:We analyzed data from 1,571 patients admitted for various CVDs in a single university hospital (median age, 67 [56–76] years; 29.6% women). We assessed EDS using the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS; median 6.0 [4.0–9.0]). The presence of EDS (ESS >10, n=297 [18.9%]) did not differ between patients with and without SDB, which was screened with nocturnal pulse oximetry. In contrast, the patients with EDS had higher depression scores (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscore for depression [HADS-D] and Patient Healthcare Questionnaire [PHQ]-9). The depression scores, measured by HADS-D (odds ratio [OR] 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.22) and PHQ-9 (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07–1.20) were independent determinants of EDS. These relationships among EDS, SDB, and depression were consistent among the subgroups with cardiovascular comorbidities.
Conclusions:The presence of EDS is associated with depressive symptoms, but not with SDB, in patients with CVD, suggesting that these patients should be thoroughly assessed for psychological disturbances.