2020 Volume 84 Issue 10 Pages 1854-1861
Background:Although self-expanding drug-eluting stents (DES) have recently shown superior outcomes for superficial femoral artery (SFA) lesions, optimal sizing of DES diameter in SFA intervention is unclear.
Methods and Results:A total of 40 de novo SFA lesions were randomized 1:1 to receive self-expanding DES with either a 1-mm or 2-mm larger diameter than the reference vessel diameter. Follow-up optical coherence tomography (OCT) was scheduled 6 months after DES implantation to evaluate the vascular response to the stents. Volume index (VI) was defined as volume divided by stent length. The primary endpoint was neointimal VI at 6 months. Baseline reference vessel diameter was similar between the 1-mm larger diameter group and the 2-mm larger diameter group (5.0±0.8 mm vs. 4.7±0.9 mm, P=0.35). Stent diameter was 6.3±0.6 mm in the 1-mm larger group and 7.1±0.6 mm in the 2-mm larger group (P<0.0001), and stent to reference vessel diameter ratio (SV ratio) was 1.3±0.2 and 1.5±0.2 (P<0.0001), respectively. At 6-month, neointimal VI was greater in the 2-mm larger diameter group (5.5±1.5 mm2vs. 9.6±3.4 mm2, P<0.001). The correlation analysis revealed that degree of neointimal VI was positively correlated with SV ratio (r=0.43, P<0.01).
Conclusions:Implantation of self-expanding DES with a considerably high SV ratio resulted in neointimal hyperplasia in SFA lesions.