Article ID: CJ-15-0813
Background:The effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on coronary artery disease have been previously reported; however, those of the addition of EPA to strong statins on coronary plaque components and local inflammatory cytokines are not known.Methods and Results:A total of 95 patients who had been treated with strong statin for at least 6 months were randomized into 2 groups: an EPA group (additional treatment with EPA at 1,800 mg/day, n=48) or a control group (no additional treatment, n=47), for 6 months. The tissue characteristics of target coronary plaque in each patient were analyzed using IB-IVUS before and after treatment. We also measured plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines sampled in the coronary sinus (CS) and peripheral vein.A significant reduction in lipid volume (18.5±1.3 to 15.0±1.5 mm3, P=0.007) and a significant increase in fibrous volume (22.9±0.8 to 25.6±1.1 mm3, P=0.01) were observed in IB-IVUS image analyses in the EPA group, but no significant changes in the plaque components in the control group. CS levels of pentraxin 3 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were lower after than before treatment with EPA (3.3±2.1 to 2.6±1.2 ng/ml, 120.4±26.2 to 110.2±26.8 pg/ml, P=0.015 and P=0.008, respectively); however, there were no significant changes in those inflammatory cytokines between pre- and post-treatment in the control group.Conclusions:The addition of EPA was associated with reduced lipid volume in coronary plaques and decreased inflammatory cytokines.