Article ID: CJ-16-0549
Background:The aim of this study was to examine whether the burden of diabetes on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Japan has increased in recent years.
Methods and Results:Three cohorts were established, consisting of Japanese residents aged 40–69 years, in 1992–1995 (n=8,744), 1996–1999 (n=7,996), and 2000–2003 (n=7,273). All participants had follow-up for a median of 10 years. Diabetes was defined according to the following criteria: (1) fasting serum glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L; (2) non-fasting serum glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L; or (3) anti-diabetic treatment at baseline. During follow-up, the number of CVD incidents was 277 in the first, 214 in the second, and 190 in the third cohorts. The prevalence of diabetes increased slightly over time. Adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, multivariable HR (95% CI) for diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor were 1.40 (0.91–2.14) in the first, 1.93 (1.25–3.00) in the second, and 2.59 (1.77–3.81) in the third cohorts. The population attributable fraction of CVD due to diabetes was 2.8%, 5.6%, and 12.4%, respectively.
Conclusions:This is the first study in middle-aged Japanese people to clarify an increased burden of CVD due to diabetes since the early 1990 s. Further efforts are needed to prevent and control diabetes through lifestyle modification and treatment.