Background:It has previously been reported that oral administration of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) generates EPA-rich high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles with a variety of anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the mechanism underlying the anti-atherogenic effects of EPA-rich HDL using reconstituted HDL (rHDL) was investigated.
Methods and Results:rHDL was generated by the sodium cholate dialysis method, using apolipoprotein A-1 protein, cholesterol, and various concentrations of EPA-phosphatidylcholine (PC) or egg-PC. Increased EPA-PC contents in rHDL resulted in decreased particle size. Next, the effects of rHDL containing various amounts (0–100% of total PC) of EPA-PC on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was examined. Cytokine-stimulated VCAM-1 expression was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner based on the amount of EPA-PC in rHDL. Surprisingly, the incubation of HUVECs with EPA-rich rHDL resulted in the production of resolvin E3 (RvE3), an anti-inflammatory metabolite derived from EPA. Incubation with EPA-PC alone did not adequately induce RvE3 production, suggesting that RvE3 production requires an endothelial cell–HDL interaction. The increased anti-inflammatory effects of EPA-rich HDL may be explained by EPA itself and RvE3 production. Furthermore, the increase in EPA-PC content enhanced cholesterol efflux.
Conclusions:The EPA-enriched HDL particles exhibit cardioprotective properties via the production of anti-inflammatory lipid metabolites and the increase in cholesterol efflux.