Article ID: CJ-18-0468
Background: Gut microbiome composition or circulating microbiome-related metabolites in patients with heart failure (HF) have not been investigated at different time points (i.e., in the decompensated (Decomp) and compensated (Comp) phases).
Methods and Results: We prospectively enrolled 22 patients admitted for HF and 11 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched hospitalized control subjects without a history of HF. Gut flora and plasma microbiome-related metabolites were evaluated by amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, respectively. HF patients were evaluated in both the Decomp and Comp phases during hospitalization. The phylum Actinobacteria was enriched in HF patients compared with control subjects. At the genus level, Bifiodobacterium was abundant while Megamonas was depleted in HF patients. Meanwhile, plasma concentration of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiome-derived metabolite, was increased in HF patients (Decomp HF vs. control, P=0.003; Comp HF vs. control, P=0.004). A correlation analysis revealed positive correlations between the abundance of the genus Escherichia/Shigella and levels of TMAO and indoxyl sulfate (IS, a microbe-dependent uremic toxin) in Comp HF (TMAO: r=0.62, P=0.002; IS: r=0.63, P=0.002). Escherichia/Shigella was more abundant in Decomp than in Comp HF (P=0.030).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that gut microbiome composition and microbiome-related metabolites are altered in HF patients.