Article ID: CJ-18-1002
Background:Many studies show that dietary factors such as vegetables, fruit, and salt are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, a risk assessment chart for CVD mortality according to combinations of dietary factors has not been established.
Methods and Results:Participants were 9,115 men and women aged 30–79 years enrolled in the National Nutritional Survey of Japan in 1980 with a 29-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day weighed dietary record at baseline. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality stratified by vegetables, fruit, fish, and salt consumption. HRs of CVD mortality according to combinations of dietary factors were color coded on an assessment chart. Higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, and fish, and lower salt intake were associated with lower CVD mortality risk. HRs calculated from combinations of dietary factors were displayed using 5 colors corresponding to the magnitude of the HR. People with the lowest intake of vegetables, fruit, and fish, and higher salt intake had a HR of 2.87 compared with those with the highest intake of vegetables, fruit, and fish, and lower salt intake.
Conclusions:Vegetables, fruit, fish, and salt intake were independently associated with CVD mortality risk. The assessment chart generated could be used in Japan as an educational tool for CVD prevention.