2000 年 33 巻 4 号 p. 472-482
The purpose of this paper is to examine the transition in meanings encompassed by the term “cookery”that appeared in 179 homemaking textbooks for high school and college students from 1888to 1994 in Japan. “Cookery” included 47 activities or concepts that we categorized and counted by representative key words.
1. In textbooks published before 1946, there were no distinctive differences between the terms shokuhin and shokumotsu. The purposes and significance of cookery were mainly explained by the key words: to kill microorganisms or parasites, to satisfy nutritional needs, to make foods more digestible, to make foods more appealing in appearance, and to improve taste to stimulate appetite.
2. In high school textbooks published during the past 50 years, cookery involved some of the same key words: preparing hygienically safe food, improving nutritional density, making foods more digestible, and making foods better in appearance. Other than these, processing food to make it easier to eat or digest, and making food tastier were also frequently used as key words.
3. In college textbooks published from 1953 to 1994, the differences between shokuhin and shokumotsu were clearly defined. The purpose of cookery encompassed more key words than those used earlier (and mentioned above). Added to the key words of-making food easier to eat and digest, preparing hygienically safe food, improving nutritional density, improving palatability and taste, and making foods better in appearance-were the important concepts of continuing cultural (and regional)traditions, and creating a happy and safe home atmosphere through the preparation of good meals.