1999 Volume 24 Issue 5 Pages 305-312
This minireview summarizes the syntheses of various purinenucleotide analogues and their effects on microtubule (Mt) assembly. 27 analogues were so far synthesized and, together with 3 analogues commercially available (ITP, XTP and dGTP), their effects on Microtubule assembly were investigated. The positions C2, C6, C8, and ribose moiety of purine nucleotides were modified or substituted. It was found that the microenvironments of the purine base and ribose moiety are important for the nucleotides to support Mt assembly. Introduction of amino group into position C2 of ATP, formation of 2-amino ATP, caused Mt assembly substantially. 2-Amino deoxy ATP and deoxy GTP are more potent than GTP in supporting assembly. The introduction of reactive thiol group into C6 (6-SH-GTP) largely reduces the activity of the analogue to support assembly. However, sequestering reactivity of the thiol group by association with methyl group largely recovers the ability of the analogue to promote assembly. Free rotation of the glycosidic linkage was found to be also innevitable in promoting assembly, as the introduction of sulfur atom between C8 of the purine base and C2’ of the ribose moiety (formation of 8, 2’-S-cyclo purine nucleotides) caused total inhibition. Purinenucleoside triphosphate supports assembly better than GTP but the deoxy-type analogues are totally inhibitory. 2-Amino-8-hydroxy ATP and other analogues support assembly much better than does GTP. However, their diphosphate analogues are totally incapable of supporting assembly. Introduction of a bulky fluorescent probes into C3’ can be made to visualize the fluorescent signal in assembled Mts. Together with the suggestions proposed from electron chrystallography of zinc-induced tubulin sheets, interactions of the purine base and ribose moieties with surrounding amino acid residues are discussed.