2021 年 2021 巻 11 号 p. 160-174
The purpose of this study is to understand the cultural impact of China's education policy by reflecting on historical changes and development of the nation’s education policy. In recent years, there have been many dissenting opinions about the policy of suzhi education reform in China. It can be said that the root cause of such controversy comes from the incompatibility between the implicit cultural meanings hidden behind China's educational policy and the explicit exam oriented culture of Chinese society. By understanding the characteristics of Chinese education policy in different times from a historical perspective, a functional analysis of Chinese exam oriented culture can be obtained through comparisons with people of differing education backgrounds. Based on the competitive nature of China's exam system, the functionality of education is brought into question. There is a social maxim where “everything is inferior, only study is high” and obtaining a high exam standing can bring social prestige as well as obtaining academic success. Meanwhile, individuals who do not perform as well will lose social standing and can even become socially ostracized as a result. On the other hand, this same examination culture motivates an individual’s pursuit of academics as it both increases their social standing and learning. From this form of motivation, there is a phenomenon called "exam fever" where there is a rapid expansion of more college entrance examinations and increase pressure to obtain greater academic achievements, such as diplomas, certifications and degrees. While certain groups may denounce these measures as excessive or even cruel, Chinese society has a way of adjusting to these changes to mitigate the negative results. Through the historical and cultural lens, this paper aims trace those societal trends as well as the development of how these adjustments help to reduce the common issues in China’s education system.