This study explores the reality of economizing on welfare by promoting the idea that anyone can serve as a welfare worker for the elderly, through an examination of the work of social welfare professionals in elder care facilities in modern China. Building upon this, we discuss that the idea of cheaper welfare has been highly influenced by economic policies, which have socialized welfare for the elderly by tertiary industrialization. We also suggest the reality of the enclosing phenomenon, which not only elderly people but also welfare professionals for the elderly enclose social resources of welfare for the elderly.
Marketization in welfare service is becoming a hot issue in the social policy in both Japan and China. However, the difference in the path of marketization has not yet been explained clearly and properly. In this study, to approach the changes in two countries’ service delivery system dynamically, we made a theoretical framework (and also visualized in a matrix) by two key concepts, Williamson’s “governance mechanism” for transaction and “form of service producer” for privatization. Based on this framework, we made a comparative study on elder care and the conclusions can be summarized as follows. First, even though the policies and institutions in service delivery system of Japan and China seems totally different from the beginning until now, both of them started from a “hierarchy and public-based” structure and converged to a “hybrid and private-based” structure. Second, the marketization path of Japan seems gradual and dependent, while China has an obvious path-departure in 1990s because of the reform of state-owned enterprises. Third, to China, whether the quantities of service deliverysystems are enough for turning into a hybrid governance structure such as a long-term care insurance system is a serious problem that needs to be positively discussed. Last, the concept of marketization itself not only means taking advantage of market mechanism unilaterally, the conjugation with regulation in transaction is also very important.
The professional graduate schools are categorized as "full-time" ones and "part-time" ones in China. During the period of high-economic growth in China, accompanying popularization of higher education and difficulty of finding jobs after graduation, the most remarkable reform is that professional graduate schools started recruiting graduates after a series of reforms of higher education. However, with the diversification of opportunities for university graduates advancement, it became a big problem. Previous studies paid little attention on uncovering the related reasons to this problem either through verifying students' motivation by quantitative surveys or through investigating influence factors of students in full-time professional graduate school. To fill this gap, firstly this study clarifies the reasons for students going to full-time graduate school by quantitative surveys Which is then followed by the explanation of data and analysis methodology. Finally, the results regarding the relationships between entrance motivation and influencing factors are explained and discussed.
Youjyo is a term only used in sexual offenses under penal code of China, meaning female who is under 14 years old. Recently until 2015, a heated dispute about Youjyo, whether Youjyo should be interpreted as ‘Prostitute’ or ‘Child’, was risen even though two categories’ connotations were opposite. This study starts with a question why Youjyo is being explained in terms of both ‘prostitute’ and ‘child’. Attempting to give an answer to the coexistence of ideal of sex equality and child protection in the term Youjyo, the analysis on this paper introduced historical perspective. By exploring prostitution-abolition movement of China, this paper shows that two narratives of females under 14 coexisted temporarily. One is ‘prostitute’ based on ideal of sex equality. In this narrative, females under 14 were seen as ‘socially unfortunate women’ and should be relieved from feudal imperialistic inequality. In contrast, as ideal of child protection grows, the term ‘Youjyo’ was created. In this narrative, females under 14 were protected as ‘national next generation’. But after a while, prostitution-abolition movement was regarded successful and ‘prostitute’, or even prostitution itself, was regarded to be rooted out. Therefore, females under 14 were recognized as ‘Youjyo’ since ‘prostitute’ that represented ‘social unfortunate woman’ were no longer usable. Previous researches show that in China, there is a distance between researches on prostitution and child prostitution. One is focusing on woman while another is focusing on child. However, issues such as Enjyokousai, young people engaging in sexual intercourse deliberately is emerging as a social problem. Thus, the distance between prostitution and child prostitution can no longer be maintained, and the distinction of child/adult would no longer sufficient while narrating young people, so perspective of gender should be added. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the interspace between sexual equality and child protection.