1966 年 21 巻 p. 133-145,en240
The aim of this study is to make clear functions of valuation in group thinking, which appears when the teacher gives group guidance to pupils, and thus to systematize in the perspective of the theory of action the value theories in sociology, cultural anthropology, and social psychology.
To begin with, based on the examinations of various definitions of value, we define the value internalized in the actor-subject as follows: “A value is the structure of an individual's symbolism of the desirable which is implied by a set of preferential responses to his desiderata.” What is the core of this definition is the theory of symbolism. Just as a symbol has both expressive meanings and cognitive meanings inseparably, a value is the inferential construct, found in an actor-subject, both of expressive symbolism and of cognitive symbolism. Based on the results of our surveys, we categorized expressive symbolism into affective and desirous, cognitive symbolism into logical and normative.
After the preparatory considerations stated above, we conceived the valuation process in group thinking as follows: the stages of the process are (1) already having values, (2) problematic, apposite values, (3) counter-poised or coexistent probable values, (4) probable, developed values, and (5) motives or stable affect-laden codes. The already having values of children usually exist in a closed state, under the social control of social norms functioning in the school, in the home, and among children themselves. There fore, the planning of such valuation process in group think-ing aims at making children create open possible values for themselves, through their own group thinking under the proper guidance of a teacher. And the valuation process of a child who takes part in group thinking, is closely connected with his selective trending in needs and values.
Talcott Parsons develops his theory of symbolism, so to speak, connecting the cultural system with the social system. But, in this study, we try to develop our theory of symbolism connecting the cultural system with the personality system.