1966 年 21 巻 p. 57-70,en248
Most investigators have pointed out that many of the causes of juvenile delinquency can be found in the family relationships in the lower class. They have also shown that individuals in the lower class are more likely to be arrested and covicted than those in the middle and upper socio-economic strata. Therefore, any social variable found more frequently in the family relationships in the lower class might erroneously be assumed to be related to delinquent behavior. For example, we can present the following several points which are considered to be characteristically and universally observable in the families of delinquents.
First, there is considerably large discrepancy among parents regarding the way of home discipline. Second, the discipline is paid little attention to on account of poverty and of maternal laboring out of the family. Thirdly, analyses of children in these families show that many of such children are rejected by their parents. Fourthly, parents no longer have sufficient authority to exercise for the training of their children. And fifthly, parents' behavior often deviates from social norms. So, children's identification with their parents does not always mean the internalization of social norms.
These characteristics in parents-child relationship, however, are not necessarily observed in the families of delinquents alone. The families of non-delinquents in the lower class also have the same characteristics of family relationships as those mentioned above. Therefore, we can not consider that these characteristics are related to delinquent behavior.
To find out social variables which are observable only in the families of delinqents, we must discriminate the relationships in the families of delinquents from those of non-delinquents “for each class”.
The purpose of this study is to find out social variables in family relationships which are related to delinquent behavior for each class. For this purpose, the research was conducted by means of interview. Subjects of the research are 246 delinquents arrested repeatedly and 281 non-delinquents in Miyagi Prefecture. In analyzing the data, chi square is employed to test significance of differences between distributions of social variables in the families of delinquents and those of non-delinquents for each class.
Results are as follows:
1) Undesirable family relationships are universal in the lower class, but they are not considered to be directly related to delinquent behavior.
2) The lower class is characterized by distinctive values. But conformity with the lower-class values do not automatically violate legal norms.
3) Law-abiding lower- and middle-class youth seek to affiliate with higher class than their class of origin. They also tend to rank others primarily in terms of style of life. So, they try not to fallen their families in public estimation by deviant acts. On the other hand, law-violating lower-and middle-class youngsters do not aspire to higher status and they rank others in terms of money alone. Furthermore, they do not mind getting their good reputation in the way of life.
4) Home discipline is considered to be related to delinquent behavio by affecting each of the element of social control. Throughout social strata, it is observed to be a cause of delinquency that parents make no demand or make no effort to enforce their demand for children to stand their families high in public estimation.