2013 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 311-319
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the small intestine to the blood in response to glucose intake during a meal; however, it is not known whether mastication affects GLP-1 secretion. Here, we examined the relationship between mastication and GLP-1 secretion, along with postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations. We compared the levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma active GLP-1 concentrations after young healthy volunteers ate a test meal either by usual eating (control) or in one of three specified ways: 1. unilateral chewing, 2. quick eating, 3. 30-times chewing per bite. Ten volunteers participated in each of the three groups. Plasma active GLP-1 concentrations did not change by unilateral chewing or quick eating, but did increase by the third method, without affecting the concentrations of blood glucose or serum insulin. Next, we tested whether 30-times chewing per bite increased plasma active GLP-1 concentrations in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but there was no difference in results between usual eating and 30-times chewing per bite. This is a pilot trial with a small number of subjects, but is the first study to investigate the relationships between various styles of mastication and the GLP-1 secretion in young healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients.