Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria for rickets and osteomalacia — Proposal by an expert panel supported by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and The Japan Endocrine Society [Opinion]
Seiji FukumotoKeiichi OzonoToshimi MichigamiMasanori MinagawaRyo OkazakiToshitsugu SugimotoYasuhiro TakeuchiToshio Matsumoto
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2015 Volume 62 Issue 8 Pages 665-671


Rickets and osteomalacia are diseases characterized by impaired mineralization of bone matrix. Recent investigations revealed that the causes for rickets and osteomalacia are quite variable. While these diseases can severely impair the quality of life of the affected patients, rickets and osteomalacia can be completely cured or at least respond to treatment when properly diagnosed and treated according to the specific causes. On the other hand, there are no standard criteria to diagnose rickets or osteomalacia nationally and internationally. Therefore, we summarize the definition and pathogenesis of rickets and osteomalacia, and propose the diagnostic criteria and a flowchart for the differential diagnosis of various causes for these diseases. We hope that these criteria and flowchart are clinically useful for the proper diagnosis and management of patients with these diseases.

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© The Japan Endocrine Society
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