2017 Volume 64 Issue Suppl. Pages S27-S29
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with a unique structure comprising a medium chain fatty acid modification. Ghrelin cells are known to be abundantly localized in the gastric mucosa and are released into the blood stream to exert their multifunctional physiological effects. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of ghrelin secretion and acyl-modification, we developed novel ghrelin-producing cell lines. Using ghrelinoma cell lines, we focused on the mechanisms of ghrelin secretion and found that several GPCRs were highly expressed in ghrelin cells. Then, we showed that noradrenaline treatment stimulated ghrelin secretion via β1-adrenergic receptor, and fasting-induced ghrelin elevation was completely inhibited by the β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist in mice. In addition, we demonstrated that long chain fatty acids, glucose, and L-glutamate significantly inhibited ghrelin secretion. Furthermore, we recently revealed that the genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and long chain fatty acid metabolism were expressed in ghrelin cells, and that CPT-1 inhibitor treatment dramatically decreased the levels of acyl-modified ghrelin. Here, we introduce the current knowledge of the mechanisms involving ghrelin secretion and its acyl-modification.