Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Low plasma renin activity is independently associated with kidney disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy, including those with impaired kidney function: a 2-year prospective study
Kazuyoshi KumaSusumu TsudaAkiko FukuiRyota YoshitomiNaoki HaruyamaMasaru Nakayama
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Supplementary material

2022 Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages 547-557


Plasma renin activity (PRA) is lower in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) than in healthy individuals. However, the association, if any, between PRA and renal outcomes in patients with DN remains uncertain. In a 2-year prospective observational study, we aimed to investigate the association of PRA with the decline in kidney function in patients with DN. We studied 97 patients with DN who were categorized according to tertile (T1–T3) of PRA. The annual changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (mL/min/1.73 m2/year) were determined from the slope of the linear regression curve for eGFR. The secondary endpoint was defined as a composite of the doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. Results showed that kidney function rapidly declined with lower tertiles of PRA (median value [interquartile range] of the annual eGFR changes: –8.8 [–18.5 to –4.2] for T1, –8.0 [–14.3 to –3.2] for T2, and –3.1 [–6.3 to –2.0] for T3; p for trend <0.01). Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that, compared with T3, T1 was associated with a larger annual change in eGFR (coefficient, –4.410; 95% confidence interval [CI], –7.910 to –0.909 for T1). Composite renal events occurred in 46 participants. In multivariable Cox analysis, the lower tertiles of PRA (T1 and T2) were associated with higher incidences of the composite renal outcome (T2: hazard ratio [HR], 4.78; 95% CI, 1.64–13.89; T1: HR, 4.85; 95% CI 1.61–14.65) than T3. In conclusion, low PRA is independently associated with poor renal outcomes in patients with DN.

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