Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Advances in understanding of phosphate homeostasis and related disorders
Toshimi Michigami
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2022 Volume 69 Issue 8 Pages 881-896


Inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the mammalian body is balanced by its influx and efflux through the intestines, kidneys, bones, and soft tissues, at which several sodium/Pi co-transporters mediate its active transport. Pi homeostasis is achieved through the complex counter-regulatory feedback balance between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone. FGF23, which is mainly produced by osteocytes in bone, plays a central role in Pi homeostasis and exerts its effects by binding to the FGF receptor (FGFR) and αKlotho in distant target organs. In the kidneys, the main target, FGF23 promotes the excretion of Pi and suppresses the production of 1,25(OH)2D. Deficient and excess FGF23 result in hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia, respectively. FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia include tumor-induced osteomalacia and various genetic diseases, such as X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Coverage by the national health insurance system in Japan for the measurement of FGF23 and the approval of burosumab, an FGF23-neutralizing antibody, have had a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. Some of the molecules responsible for genetic hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia are highly expressed in osteocytes and function as local regulators of FGF23 production. A number of systemic factors also regulate FGF23 levels. Although the mechanisms responsible for Pi sensing in mammals have not yet been elucidated in detail, recent studies have suggested the involvement of FGFR1. The further clarification of the mechanisms by which osteocytes detect Pi levels and regulate FGF23 production will lead to the development of better strategies to treat hyperphosphatemic and hypophosphatemic conditions.

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© The Japan Endocrine Society
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