Article ID: EJ18-0472
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), secreted from enteroendocrine K cells, has potent insulin-releasing and extrapancreatic glucoregulatory activities. However, exogenous GIP has less potent biological effects compared with another incretin hormone, GLP-1, which limits its use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The fate and secretion of administered native GIP remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify plasma binding proteins for human GIP. Fluorescent-labelled GIP was added to fresh human plasma and subjected to clear native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CN-PAGE). Then fluorescent protein bands were in-gel trypsin-digested and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, revealing the presence of albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and transferrin. In contrast to GIP, the binding of fluorescent GLP-1 and glucagon to plasma protein fractions were minimal. CN-PAGE analysis of synthetic GIP incubated with human serum albumin, purified IgG or transferrin, and subsequent western blot analysis revealed that GIP binds to each of these proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that GIP readily binds to albumin, IgG and transferrin, three plasma proteins highly abundant in the human peripheral circulation. Separation of protein complexes using CN-PAGE and the identification of in-gel digested proteins by LC-MS/MS analysis provide a promising strategy to identify plasma binding proteins for bioactive peptides.