2017 年 2017 巻 37 号 p. 30-48
The internal and external security nexus has become increasingly important for the EU in terms of policy and in its implementation. The 2003 “European Security Strategy” the first European Union security strategy, called attention to this aspect. The later revised strategy, the “EU Global Strategy” in June 2016 explains that “Internal and external security are ever more intertwined: our security at home entails a parallel interest in peace in our neighbouring and surrounding regions.” This attaches significant importance to an integral and comprehensive approach in the area of Justice and Home Affairs, development assistance, as well as enhanced cooperation with the European Commission. Many CSDP （Common Security and Defence Policy） field missions, operating outside the EU area, have contributed to the internal security of the EU.
The major security threats that have been identified by the EU have been terrorism, organized crime and cyber crime. Massive migration flows into the EU area are perceived as a threat. Given this, the role of the European Commission in security has been significantly developed, and President Juncker’s Commission launched concrete policies towards a “Security Union” in order to protect citizens.
The European Commission launched the “European Agenda for Security” in April 2015, which set out actions in order to ensure an effective response to terrorism and other security threats. Since then, the Commission proposed to revise the Firearms Directive, and a new Directive on Combatting Terrorism.
On the issue of external border control, Frontex was strengthened and the European Border and Coast Guard was launched in October 2016. It is expected to agree on an Entry/Exit System and a European Travel Information and Authorization System for visa-exempt travelers in 2017.
Brexit should enhance CSDP cooperation since previously the UK had obstructed its progress. The new US administration under President Trump will likely push European countries to increase their defence budgets. These elements, as well as its internal and external security threats, will enhance security cooperation in the EU.